US Final (after Alaskan Purchase and until Korematsu)

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Spanish American War

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154 Terms

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Spanish American War

US declares war on Spain and invades Cuba, began with explosion of USS Maine, ends with US winning and claiming Spain’s holdings outside of Africa- Guam, Philippines, PR, Cuba

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US-Philippine War

war for independence where both side used guerilla tactics, US wins

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3

Arguments for Imperialism

Albert Beveridge, America has “chosen people” and should spread their influence throughout the world, we could sell our products in other markets, we could civilize people who need it and “save” them, manifest destiny and spreading American culture

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Arguments against Imperialism

William Jennings Bryan, the US is already a world power and has influenced the rest of the world, when trade is secured by force, there is no profit, anti-American because if the Filipinos are educated, they will see the Americans as hypocritical, it won’t benefit the common American

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Pacifists

person who opposes all wars, usually on moral or religious grounds

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Committee on Public Information

gov agency created by Woodrow Wilson during WWI to promote pro-war propaganda to the American public, posters, Four-Minute Men (short, patriotic speeches)

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WWI

1914-1917, cost about 35.5 billion, income taxes were raised and taxable income was reduced, became more hands on

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Liberty Bonds

gov borrowed money and promised to pay it back at a later date plus interest

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War Industries Board

coordinated the work of gov agencies and industry groups to make sure supplies and equipment were produced and delivered to the military

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National War Labor Board

worked to settle any labor disputes

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War Policies Board

set standards for wages, hours, and working conditions in war industries

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Food Administration

led by Hoover to oversee production and distribution of food and fuel, raised crop prices to encourage farmers to produce more food and began campaign that urged Americans to conserve food (Meatless Mondays/Wheatless Wednesdays)

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Fuel Administration

met nation’s energy needs through a combination of increased production and conservation (Heatless Mondays and Gasless Sundays)

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Daylight Savings Time

introduced to have an extra hour of daylight to use less electricity

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WEB DuBois

urged blacks to serve in the military and show loyalty to gain equality

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Great Migration

beginning during WWI, mass movement of millions of African Americans from rural South to find industry jobs in Northern and Midwestern cities, especially to Harlem

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Causes of WWI

militarism (increased focus on military), alliances (Allies, Central Powers), nationalism (pride of own country), imperialism (stronger country takes over smaller country), assassination (Franz Ferdinand assassinated by Serb)

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Allies

Britain, Russia, France, Italy, Greece, Serbia

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Central Powers

Germany, Austro-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria

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US Entry in WWI

sinking of Lusitania by German submarine killing Americans (unrestricted submarine warfare), Zimmerman telegram (Germany said if Mexico joined war they could get back their land from US), supplied to Allies

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Espionage and Sedition Act

attempted to protect war effort, did not allow people to cause or attempt to cause insubordination in the military or to obstruct recruitment of people in the military

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Service Act

when US entered WWI, they needed to expand their military, so they created a mandatory draft

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Schenck v. United States

Socialist Party, sent out leaflets suggesting Service Act violated 13th Amendment, claimed the leaflets were free speech and Espionage Act violated that, found guilty

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Postwar Unemployment

gov was not prepared for demobilization, hundreds of factories closed, crop prices fell, led to a recession as people spent all the money they had saved in war (inflation)

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Labor after WWI

wages reduced, hours lengthened, less attention to safety

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AFL

represented skilled workers for bread and butter unionism (wages and working conditions)

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IWW/Wobblies

socialists, Eugene Debs

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Strikes after WWI

strikes met with violence and no gov support, Seattle Shipyard Workers’ Strike, Boston Police Strike, union members were linked to communism as strike violence added to fear of radicalism and anarchy

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Radicalism

point of view favoring extreme change, especially in social and economic structures

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Communism

economic or political system in which the state or community owns all property and the means of production, citizens share wealth

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Mini Red Scare

1919-1920, postwar fear of radicals and birth of communism

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Palmer Raids

series of unauthorized raids on homes, businesses, and meeting places of suspected subversives after bombings, deported and arrested large amounts of immigrants often without evidence

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Sacco and Vanzetti Trial

exemplified increasing social tensions, two Italian guys robbed a store and an eyewitness identified Sacco and Vanzetti just because they were Italian

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Emergency Immigration Act of 1921

more immigrants arrived as war ended and nativists argued against, capped number of people allowed each year at 375,000, introduced quota system to limit number of immigrants by 3% of country’s residents in US

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Immigration Act of 1924

reduced number of immigrants allowed to 164,000, cut quotas to 2% of country’s residents in 1890, severely reduced Southern and Eastern European immigrants and Asians

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36

KKK

targeted African Americans, immigrants, Catholics, and Jews, grew out of the South into the rest of the country and even the government, created propaganda through movies and music

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ACLU

founded to defend Americans’ rights and freedoms from Constitution, protected immigrants from being deported

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38

Marcus Garvey

traveled throughout America to restore black pride, Back-to-Africa Movement

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39

Urbanization

in 1920s, United States was over 50% urban as big cities offered more freedom from traditional behavior rules

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Rural Issues in 1920s

farmers couldn’t repay loans and many lost farms

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Fundamentalism

belief that scripture should be read as the literal word of God and followed without question, rose in 1920s

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Flappers

women who dressed provocatively, drank, partied, went against traditional norms, adults thought they were reckless and immoral

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Theory of Evolution

Darwin argued human beings had evolved from apes, rejected by traditionalists because it conflicted with creationism

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Scopes Trial

Tennessee teacher taught Darwin’s theory of evolution that was banned in Tennessee, William Jennings Bryan represented Tennessee and Clarence Darrow from the ACLU represented Scopes, Scopes was found guilty, science vs. religion

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Drys

backers of prohibition, believed alcoholism caused crime, violence, and breakup of families

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Wets

opponents of Prohibiton

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47

Volstead Act

enforced 18th Amendment, which prohibited manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages

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48

Speakeasies

secret club that sold alcohol during the era of prohibition

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Bootlegging

production, transport, and sale of illegal alcohol

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Al Capone

gangs made lots of money off speakeasies, crime rose

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21st Amendment

appealed the 18th Amendment

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Harlem Renaissance

celebration of Black culture, spread of Black literature, music, art, Langston Hughes (poetry)

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Economic Boom in 1920s

long Bull market and consumer possessions and profit increased, however, many people were in poverty and unemployed

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54

Teapot Dome Scandal

Albert Fall accepted bribed from oil companies to drill on federal land, corruption in US gov

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55

Treaty of Versailles

rejected by the US, only France, Italy, Britain, and US were present, no Germany

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Treaty Ratification

executive and legislative have to cooperate, 2/3 of Senate have to vote yes, president first negotiates treaty and then it is sent to the US Senate and is debated

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57

Wilson’s Fourteen Points

14-part plan for peace presented by Wilson to Congress in 1918, eliminate causes of wars, end to secret agreements, Freedom of the Seas (merchant ships can travel freely in times of peace and war), reduction of armanents, self-determination, creation of international organization to promote peace

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58

League of Nations

member nations agreed to protect one another’s independence and territorial integrity, US did not join, collective security (countries commit to jointly dealing with a nation that threatens the peace or security of any one of the countries)

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War-Guilt Clause

clause included in Treaty of Versailles that held Germany responsible for WWI and required it to make reparations to the Allied nations to pay for losses and damage suffered during the war, ruined Wilson’s hope for “peace without victory"

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60

Reservationists

Republican senators who would agree to approve the Treaty of Versailles only if changes were made, mostly concerned with League of Nations drawing US into wars

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Irreconcilables

Republican senators who opposed ratification of the treaty

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Internationalists

Democratic senators who strongly supported the treaty

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63

Partisanship

rivalry between political parties based on strong disagreement about political principles

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64

Warren G Harding

free enterprise system- ownership of private property, competition, little gov regulation, aka capitalism

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Fiscal Policy

gov’s use of taxes and spending to stabilize the economy

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66

Calvin Coolidge

reduced corporate taxes, income taxes, and inheritance taxes, eliminated unnecessary spending

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Herbert Hoover

rugged individualism- believed people must work to get back on their feet and take initiative, hands-off, believed people should support themselves and use charities and local gov during GD

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Isolationism

US stayed out of foreign affairs

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Washington Naval Conference

attempted to reduce military competition by limiting size of navies and outlawing poison gas

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Kellogg-Briand Pact

agreement made among most nations of the world to try to settle international disputes by peaceful means rather than war

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Good Neighbor Policy

US wanted to improve relations with Latin America, Hoover rejected Roosevelt Corollary, US could not longer intervene in Latin America

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Republican Boon Years

1920s, recession faded away, productivity increased, unemployment dropped, and wages rose

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73

Henry Ford

moving assembly line cuts production time from 14 to 6 hours, prices of cars falls

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New Industries

car industry rises→growth of steel, rubber and oil→highway construction→hotels and gas stations, airplane industry, radio production

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Dow Jones Industrial Average

stock ownership spread to middle class and everyone invested, doubled from 1928 to 1929

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Poverty during Boon Years

family of 4 needed 2,500 to live, more than half only made 1,500, farmers and unskilled workers struggled

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77

Bull Market

period where stock prices are rising, 1920s

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78

Buying on Margin

people borrowed money to invest in stocks

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79

Stock Market Crash

cause of GD, October 1929, period of plunging stock market prices, Black Tuesday (Oct 29 1929)- worst day of crash

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80

Bank Runs

cause of GD, financial crisis where large number of people attempted to withdraw money from fear that banks would close, many banks went out of business and savings vanished

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Overproduction

cause of GD, situation in which more goods are being produced than people can afford to buy

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82

Underconsumption

cause of GD, people purchased fewer goods than economy produced

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Unemployment

rose from 3% to 25% from 1929 to 1933

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84

Federal Reserve

decreased amount of money in circulation which led to higher interest rates

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85

Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act

cause of GD, raised tariffs on imported goods in order to protect US businesses and farmers to force people to buy American, a trade war started as Europe also raised tariffs

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86

FDR

hands-on, New Deal, Democrat

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87

Bank Holiday

FDR closed all banks temporarily

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88

3 Rs

relief, recovery and reform

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Emergency Banking Act

allowed the federal gov more power to supervise bank activities

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90

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

guaranteed individual bank deposits up to 5,000

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Securities and Exchange Commission

regulated activities of stockbrokers and others in investment business

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National Industrial Recovery Act

centerpiece of the New Deal’s efforts to breathe lift into an economy which focused on business, labor unions and unemployed

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Public Works Administration

3.3 billion dollars toward various public works to create new jobs and spend money on economy

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Agricultural Adjustment Administration

paid farmers to plant fewer crops

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95

Tennessee Valley Authority

built a series of dams on the Tennessee River which provided flood control and hydroelectric power to seven southern states, controversial because the fed gov directly competed with private companies

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Federal Housing Association

insured mortgage loans up to 80% of home’s value

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Civilian Conservation Corps

work relief program established in 1933 to provide work for unemployed Americans such as planting trees and working on other conservation projects

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Federal Emergency Relief Administration

sent funds to state govs which then distributed the cash to the needy, first time in American history a fed agency gave direct relief to unemployed

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Conservative Critics of New Deal

thought FDR had gone too far to expand federal gov

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Liberal Critics of New Deal

thought FDR was not doing enough

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