HIST 359 Final

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

The settlement of the American west happens unevenly. Leapfrog effect:

1 / 190

Studying Progress

0%
New cards
191
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
191 Terms
1
New cards

The settlement of the American west happens unevenly. Leapfrog effect:

this tide that has been going west just skips over the middle west of America and goes to the far west.

New cards
2
New cards

What does the leapfrog effect over the middle west reflect about its environment:

The basic natural environment of the west with inland was inhospitable deserts to plants, animals, and humans.

New cards
3
New cards

The Appalachians are lower mountains but are significant barriers because they

choppy ridges that make crossing it with wagons and people difficult

New cards
4
New cards

Natural increase: average American has 7 kids who 4-5 survive, and this doubling of generation

creates a large demand for land!!

New cards
5
New cards

Louisiana Purchase:

Thomas Jefferson buys American inland of the west for 15 million from the French. (incredible bargain!)

New cards
6
New cards

The trek to the west is

dry, flat, and always under pressure to move fast because winter is coming!

New cards
7
New cards

Advantages of Western travel that helps these pioneers on their journey:

The land is flat, prior roads have been created, fur trappers guide them, and are accustomed to frontier settlement.

New cards
8
New cards

Organ settlers are glamorized as both civilians as tamers of nature:

"natural men" who are close to nature. (most of these men are NOT city wage workers)

New cards
9
New cards

The settlers are destroying native American habitats and bison are competing with horses for grass, and

people are moving across the plains with their livestock.

New cards
10
New cards

In California, there are over a 100,000 Natives who live on Hunting and Gathering:

California's gold rush floods immigrants onto the Native's land! (Europeans/Mexicans/Americans)

New cards
11
New cards

Only a few get rich and the gold rush is a complete disaster for the native Americans:

Most native Americans die due to the loss of food sources and new exposures to diseases.

New cards
12
New cards

People who make a lot are investors who hire agents to go to California, find the prospectors, and

buy the claim of the gold from the mountains.

New cards
13
New cards

Hard rock mining:

going underground, and usually, the prospector can't go underground with their limited funds.

New cards
14
New cards

Hydraulic mining:

high-pressure hoses that blast away hillsides. It kills fish, and river life, and it's the most environmentally destructive.

New cards
15
New cards

Hydraulic mining leads to

The first environmental regulations within the country.

New cards
16
New cards

The regulations stemming from Hydraulic mining are:

Is focused to protect the rights of farmers against the miners, and isn't formulated to protect nature. (protecting human against human)

New cards
17
New cards

Mormons are allured to the inner west because

The dryness and isolation appeal to them (natural protections against persecutors)

New cards
18
New cards

Utah has little vegetation and water, however, the Mormons advantage is

The mountains capture moisture which create rain and snow and allows for the Mormons settlements to work.

New cards
19
New cards

Mormons are forming permanent settlements and irrigate the land with water, on the other hand,

Miners: Seek gold and other minerals across geologically young rocky mountains. They want to get rich quick!

New cards
20
New cards

Bison survive the megafuana extinction yet are impossible to domesticate for Native Americans

and Natives hunt Bison on foot and horseback to use them as fuel, food, clothing, tools, and more

New cards
21
New cards

When horses arrive to the Native Americans, their

reliance on Bison only increases

New cards
22
New cards

When the hide of Buffalo becomes a lucrative commodity and Indians become reliant on the market for trading,

The Natives and Americans systematically hunt these Bison down

New cards
23
New cards

What destroyed the Bison Populations?

The Robe trade, cattle diseases, and the drought destroyed Bison populations.

New cards
24
New cards

Tanneries: places that make leather.

They discover how to make belting material from the Bison with chemicals to create a rubber material.

New cards
25
New cards

A few states prohibit hunting for bison, but those laws pass in states where there are no bison populations left, or they are not strictly enforced.

Only a 1,000 left after a population of 10,000,000

New cards
26
New cards

A Market for longhorn emerges and open ranges are used to transport these cattle, however,

Barbed wire helps create cattle business and end open range

New cards
27
New cards

Self-defeating methods by investors with cattle:

put too much cattle on a parcel of land for it to support, and when the cattle eat all the grass, weedy plants grow after this.

New cards
28
New cards

Homestead: Act: Attempt to spread small independent farming to the west! Downfalls:

It's expensive to get tools, livestock, traveling, limited timber supplies, limited water, and conditions make 160-acre farms too small.

New cards
29
New cards

The South's economy- Natural resource extraction

The North's economy- Natural resource transformation (industry)

New cards
30
New cards

1st industrial revolution: small-scale, organic power such as water and air. As opposed to

1860s: 2nd revolution: Large scale, fossil fuel (coal)

New cards
31
New cards

Soft coal:

dirty coal but abundant and cheap. you can't burn in your house but it is efficient for the industry.

New cards
32
New cards

As coal becomes a more valuable commodity:

Coal replaces wood fuel as the industry grows, and coal fuels locomotives and plants.

New cards
33
New cards

There is demand for hard and flexible metal like steel:

An incentive to develop new ways to make it for construction, tools, and railroads, and Iron mines begin to spread!

New cards
34
New cards

The successor energy source of coal is Petroleum, and it

has been used for thousands of years prior to its industrial influences.

New cards
35
New cards

Seneca tribe in Pennsylvania used it for medicine, insect repellant, and other natural uses:

At the beginning, oil near the surface is a nuisance to farmers and others.

New cards
36
New cards

Once Oil is discovered to be the equivalent of a liquid oil, it's pinpointed and exhausted:

Used for Kerosene put it in a lamp that produces a light, but this is cheap and saves whales.

New cards
37
New cards

First Oil boom from Kerosene:

Built upon lighting and the fact that it's expensive to light your house.

New cards
38
New cards

Many Americans feel like they have lost something when they don't have local production anymore:

Local production is replaced by mass production.

New cards
39
New cards

People who could farm would farm because they believe

they had a more natural and rural life.

New cards
40
New cards

Jobs at the steel plant:

Wages are very low, you work very long hours, and there are dangerous conditions.

New cards
41
New cards

Deskilling labor:

You only do one repetitive movement over and over again. You work on machine time, and workers are incredibly replaceable.

New cards
42
New cards

Farmland is expanding, but farmer populations are declining.

Farmers feel left behind by the industrial urban economy.

New cards
43
New cards

Farm Mechanization is paramount for success in the farming society because of market dependence:

Farmers are living in more and more debt for the commercialized fertilizers and mechanizations to compete with larger farmers.

New cards
44
New cards

Farmers live in this perpetual state of anxiety where they can't get by if they even have 1 season of bad crops:

These Farmers feel as though their work is fundamental for human survival and a movement will form!

New cards
45
New cards

Populist movement:

Farmers see conspiracies among urban elites and demand that the government take over the railroad and telegraph industry as they perceive themselves as the necessary producers.

New cards
46
New cards

Frederick Jackon Turner Historian:

The American frontier is closing! There is no discernible line between dense populations to settlers, and this expansion into nature had been the basis for American life.

New cards
47
New cards

Charles Darwin:

Natural selection and convinces middle-class Americans that biological competition is grounded in nature and science.

New cards
48
New cards

Darwin, on a ship voyage, reads about geology and nature from the captain's library:

It supports his theory of natural selection creating new traits and new species because of how old the earth is!

New cards
49
New cards

Social Darwinism:

Darwins' ideals being applied to human beings. Social differences due to biological evolution.

New cards
50
New cards

Darwins intention was not to apply his ideas to human society and human evolution:

Creating Social Darwinists!

New cards
51
New cards

Social Darwinists:

If you belong to a rich/powerful or poor/weak, it can be explained to your species.

New cards
52
New cards

Social Darwinists come from the upper echelon of society and perceive themselves as the protectors of Nature.

They believe the un-fit are surviving and producing, but isn't this contradictory because they are thriving??

New cards
53
New cards

Eugenics:

Prompt birth amongst richer, educated, and powerful. They want to breed people like livestock.

New cards
54
New cards

Scientific Racism:

They tried to divide humanity into races and rank those races and encourage reproduction in the fittest.

New cards
55
New cards

Paradox:

Roosevelt says if you need to preserve civilization, you must abandon civilization and not lose sight of your primal nature, such as reproduction.

New cards
56
New cards

Government Policy encourages the spread of small landholdings:

Log Cabin Law allows squatters to keep legal land they have improved/Homestead emphasized westward expansion

New cards
57
New cards

There is a deep disdain and mistrust for conservation movements because people who tell you not to manipulate the land you own:

they most likely will exploit you and take advantage to be your owners.

New cards
58
New cards

With denser populations, it's evident that America's resources are finite.

Indicators such as Eroded Soils, overgraze soils, and pollutions.

New cards
59
New cards

Conservationists are trying to protect nature to provide for humans for future generations:

They are trying to protect the interests of humans' future over Nature's use as efficient resource use. (All about economic efficiency)

New cards
60
New cards

George Perkin Marsh:

His idea is that ancient civilizations deforested and over-plowed the land and erosion!

New cards
61
New cards

Progressives aspire to reform America against

corruption, lack of sewers, child labor, and big businesses.

New cards
62
New cards

Theorode Roosevelt:

was Harvard educated, and his time out west helped him in politics and he's a conservationist.

New cards
63
New cards

He builds the fish commission, which studies every lake, river, and ocean. They study for Maximum Sustainable Yield:

How many fish can we take out of this body of water and not deplete it? (All about economics and resources being preserved.)

New cards
64
New cards

Passenger Pigeons:

For centuries, these pigeons have been a signature feature of America as the sky equivalent of Bison. (Not a coincidence their extinction coincided with European arrival)

New cards
65
New cards

Most flocks die off to mysterious reasons, however, it's most likely

Diseases, livestock competing for their food source, and market-dependent hunting methods!

New cards
66
New cards

Conservation:

about efficient use and economic exploitation that takes away from the land that is sustainable over time.

New cards
67
New cards

Preservation:

Setting aside parcels of land to protect wild nature.

New cards
68
New cards

National parks:

proposal come from George Catlin who is an artist who paints bison and Indians. It will hold a pristine environment and pristine humans. (Pure wild humans who are Indians.)

New cards
69
New cards

Yosemite Valley was Discovered in 1851. By the 1860s there is a call to preserve the valley to avoid commercialization

because many Americans believe their natural landscapes are what make America special.

New cards
70
New cards

John Muir is a Scottish immigrant who is hired to operate a sawmill and he becomes world-famous for

nature preservationists and he's important at defining what Natural Parks are

New cards
71
New cards

John Muir is blinded temporarily in a freak factory accident and decides to veer off his current career trajectory and

write about nature and he desires tourists economies to be on the outskirts of nature.

New cards
72
New cards

John Muir is so compelling with his writing that he

convinces American people and the government to protect the environment.

New cards
73
New cards

The first "national park" is by Railways pushing for tourist parks and in 1872: creates the first official "national park":

Yellowstone national park

New cards
74
New cards

General Philip Sheridan is a civil war hero:

He wants to prevent overgrazing, poaching, logging, and vandalism. He makes it a personal crusade with his division of calvary to stop all of these.

New cards
75
New cards

The President signs in the law: The act to protect the animals and birds in yellow stone park.

This act came into fruition from a story of a guy skinning buffalo and this poacher bragged about it!!

New cards
76
New cards

Wild nature must be created by removing human land users. To make land more alluring for tourists you must move off

Native Americans and Poor whites are also driven off of the land.

New cards
77
New cards

Fight over Hetch Hetchy Valley: The city of San Francisco had decided they wanted to build a reservoir here and

John Muir is aghast at that. He creates a movement to stop the building.

New cards
78
New cards

Then, a large fire that occurred in San Francisco helped politicians to

convince people and the government that a reservoir could have helped with the fire.

New cards
79
New cards

Short-term win: San Francisco gets what it wants

Long-term: It infuriates millions of people who galvanize the preservationist movement.

New cards
80
New cards

A wealthy mogul named Stephen T. Mather will be the successor of John Muir. He takes a job as chief of national parks and

buys land for parks, and convinces wealthy friends to follow.

New cards
81
New cards

Stephen T. Mather

used his own money to pay employees and builds roads and attractions at these parks.

New cards
82
New cards

Park population and popularity explodes in 1910-1920 with

the spread of cars.

New cards
83
New cards

Frontier economics and new settlements were often dominated by men:

Men make a majority of the decisions and women have no voice

New cards
84
New cards

Women are essential in small family farm enterprises.

Women will gather, garden, cook, and care for animals and children.

New cards
85
New cards

Men take pride in doing heavy and strenuous labor.

Men's and women's roles may alternate on seasons for what is needed most on the farm.

New cards
86
New cards

In an economic sense, men have dominance but in a practical sense,

women and men's work are both necessary for the success of the farm.

New cards
87
New cards

With the growing market economy, there is a formation of

Wealthier women staying indoors and avoiding outdoor work, and men are more likely to work away from home.

New cards
88
New cards

Women have become guardians of civilized life.

They want to keep men civilized, educate their children. (perceive themselves as public servants)

New cards
89
New cards

In this new market economy mens work is:

more calculating, more cutthroat, and more competitive.

New cards
90
New cards

Women are generally less enthusiastic than men about moving to the West. Women endure social isolation and shoddy houses:

Men have anticipation for building settlements and empires, while women miss home.

New cards
91
New cards

Women are supposed to be close to the good aspects of nature. Birth rates are falling because:

men are selfish and don't want the responsibility of having kids.

New cards
92
New cards

Women nature writers who are conservationists emphasize camping as a break from polite society:

woman are supposed to take nature out of a place by trying to establish churches, schools, better sanitation, and a strong disdain for prostitutes.

New cards
93
New cards

Pigs are referred to as walking sewers because they will eat garbage, manure, and practically anything.

In cities pigs will clean waste and are adequate food supplies for poor people.

New cards
94
New cards

Wealthy and middle class people have a disdain for pigs in the city that are aggressive, create copious amounts of waste, and are unappealing to look at:

A Cholera outbreak occurs and people blame the pig and there is the great pig round-up!

New cards
95
New cards

Horses: There are millions of Horses in Urban areas. Problems:

Sheer tonnage of manure being produced. Each horse produced 15-30 pounds of poop!

New cards
96
New cards

Cities are filthy with dirty/putrid air and water.

Pipe water dilutes human waste but you have to wash it out somewhere!

New cards
97
New cards

Not everyone is capable of having indoor plumbing and indoor water:

These are special privileges the rich enjoy!

New cards
98
New cards

Human waste is flowing into the streets and there are companies that create sewers for people who can afford them:

Eventually, city governments expanded this and this creates modern indoor plumbing.

New cards
99
New cards

People were upset with pipes and modern plumbing because they perceived the old system of carrying waste to farms as more virtuous:

they would buy the food from farmers and give back the poop and waste which creates a cycle of replenishing the fields. (also destroyed a thriving enterprise)

New cards
100
New cards

Women are not prominent in American political life but get involved by making cities more

attractive, greener, and cleaner, and these involvements are not breaking the usual gender norms.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7313 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(216)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard33 terms
studied byStudied by 55 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(5)
flashcards Flashcard89 terms
studied byStudied by 73 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard64 terms
studied byStudied by 80 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard76 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard96 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars