Psychology 101 Unit 2

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What is learning?

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What is learning?

a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience

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What is Operant Conditioning

Organisms learn association between behavior and consequences

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What is Classical conditioning

Learning through association, we learn to anticipate events through experience

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What kind of conditioning was Pavlovs dog experiment

Classical conditioning

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Unconditional stimulus

Illicits a natural response in an organism that causes an unconditioned response both are natural this happens before conditioning

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Neutral stimulus

At first, it does not illicit any behavior this happens before conditioning

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Conditioned response

Happens after conditioning as a response to conditioned stimulus

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Contingency

Classical conditioning regularly followed by unconditioned stimulus

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Contiguity

Time between classical conditioning and unconditioned stimulus

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Generalization

when you have the same response based off things that look alike

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Extinction

response weakened by not presenting conditioned stimulus

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Spontaneous Recovery

Conditioned response recurs after a time delay and without additional learning

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Counter conditioning

Conditioned stimulus paired with new unconditioned stimuli (bullying being associated with going to school)

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Thorndkie law effect

Behaviors followed by pleasant outcomes are strengthened and behaviors followed by unpleasant outcomes are weakened

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B.F. Skinner

Used an operant conditioning chamber, he shaped pigeons behavior by rewarding them

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Reinforcement

increases the probability of behavior

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Positive Reinforcement

Behavior followed by addition of desirable stimulus

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Negative Reinforcement

Behavior followed by the removal of undesirable stimulus (timeout)

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What is negative and positive reinforcement

It’s not a good or bad thing but rather the addition or removal of stimulus

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What are the four steps of social learning?

attention, attention to the model, retention, reproduction, motivation

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Observation learning

occurs when a person observes and imitates behavior (modeling)

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Expectancy learning

Conditioning leads to expectations, placebo effect, a student's expectation for success on a given task.

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Latent learning

unreinforced learning, learning stored but not immediately expressed in behavior occurs when you complete a task repeatedly without knowing the rules or if you are going to get reinforced aka muscle memory

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Insight learning

Problem-solving through sudden insight, thinking outside the box

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What are two biological constraints

Instinctive drift, and preparedness

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What is instinctive drift?

The tendency for some trained animals to naturally revert back to their instinctual behavior

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What are the two different mindsets?

fixed and growth

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What is a fixed mindset?

Either good or bad at something no room for improvement

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What is a growth mindset

You can learn whatever you want you just have to believe in yourself

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What are some factors that influence stress

Predictability of stressor, control over stressor, improvement of stressor, and outlets of frustration

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External locus of control

You believe that events outside of your control drive your actions

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Internal locus of control

You have personal control over your own behavior

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Learned helplessness

when an organism is unable to find resolutions to difficult situations

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Timing of consequences

Immediate versus delayed reinforcements / punishment

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Applied behavior analysis

Using operant conditioning principles to change human behavior; most commonly used for treating autism spectrum disorder

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Primary Reinforcers

Innately satisfying - food water and sexual pleasure

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Secondary Reinforcers

Become satisfying through experience; learned by repeated association with preexisting reinforcement; like social interaction, and token economy

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Continuous reinforcement

Behavior reinforced all of the time

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Partial reinforcement

behavior reinforced only some of the time

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schedules of reinforcement

patterns that determine when a behavior will be reinforced

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Fixed ratio

Reinforcement follows a set number of behaviors

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Variable Ratio

reinforcement follows an unpredictable number of behaviors

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Fixed interval

reinforcement follows behavior that occurs after a set amount of time has elapsed

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Variable interval

reinforcement follows behavior that occurs after an unpredictable amount of time has elapsed; pop quiz

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Punishment

decreases the likelihood of a behavior

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Positive punishment

behavior followed by the addition of an aversive stimulus (scolding)

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Negative punishment

Behaviors followed by a removal of a desirable stimulus (taking away tv)

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Development

The pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities that occurs throughout life

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Cross-sectional studies

studying different ages at on point in time

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Nature

Biological inheritance (genes)

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Nurture

Environmental/social experiences

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Self

Individuals take active roles in own development by seeking optimal experiences in life

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Resilience

A person’s ability to recover from or adapt to difficult times; resilient children become capable adults

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What weeks do the Germinal period take place?

Weeks 1 to 2

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What happens during the Germinal period?

Conception and zygote forms

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In what weeks does the embryonic period take place

Weeks 3 to 8

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What happens in the embryonic period

Cell differentiation, start of organ formation, and body formation

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What time does the fetal period take place?

Months 2 to 9

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What happens during the fetal period?

Increase in organ functions, can be affected by enviornmental insults

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Teratogens

Agents that can disrupt development of the fetus; more likely to affect behavior during fetal period (Nicotine, alcohol certain illnesses and viruses, and STI’s)

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What are some effects of teratogens

Timing of exposure, genetic characteristics, postnatal

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What is an example of a physical development

Reflexes, they are genetically wired behaviors some are crucial for survival

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When does the oral stage take place?

0 to 18 months

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When does the anal stage take place

18 to 36 months

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When does the phallic stage take place

3-6 years

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What happens during the phallic stage

Genitals/ masturbation

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When is the latency stage

6 years to puberty

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When is the genital stage

puberty +

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What happens during the latency stage

repression of sexual feelings

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What is cognitive development

How thought intelligence and language processes change as people mature

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Schemas

Concepts or frameworks that organize information

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Assimilation

apply old schemas to new experiences

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Accomodation

adjust/alter schemas to new information

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Sensorimotor stage

Birth to 2 years, coordinate sensations with movements, object permanences, progress from reflexive action to symbolic thought

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Preoperation stage

2 to 7 years, symbolic thinking, intuitive reasoning, egocentrism

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Concrete operational stage

7 to 11 years, operational thinking, reversibility, conservationism, classification skills, reasoning logically in concrete contexts

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Formal operational stage

10 to 15 years, lasts through adulthood, abstract and idealistic thought

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What are some problems with piagets theory

Underestimates the cognitive capacities of very young children and overestimated cognitive abilities of adolescents and adults

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What was Vygotskys sociocultural cognitive theory

Children are apprentice thinkers, and interactions with adults provides scaffolding for childs cognitive abilities

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What are the three clusters of temperament?

Easy, difficult, and slow to warm up

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What was the Harlow study

Studied which fake mom a monkey would go to, one that could provide food vs warmth, the monkey liked the warmth better

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John Bowlby

Infant attachment lays the groundwork for future relationships

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Secure attachment

Mom leaves baby, baby is sad, mom comes back picks the baby up and the baby stops crying

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Insecure attachment

mom leaves, baby cries, when mom comes back mom picks up baby but the baby still cries

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Avoidant attachment

Mom leaves, mom comes back and baby avoids mom

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Ambivalent attachment

Mom leaves, mom comes back but cant console baby

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Authoritarian parenting style

Parents are controlling and punitive, this causes children to lack social skills, show poor initivate, and compare themselves to others

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Authoritative parenting style

Parents encourage independence with limits, parents are warm and nurturing, this creates children with social competence, social responsibility, and self-reliance aka successful adults

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Neglectful parenting style

Parents generally uninvolved, correlated with less social competence and poor self control in child

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Permissive parenting style

Parents are involved but place few limits, correlated with poor social competence lack or respect for others and poor self-control and spoiled adults

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Erik Eriksons theory

Emphasizes lifelong development. One issue with his theory is that it was primarily focused on case studies

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Birth to 1 year

Trust vs. mistrust - learning that the provider of comfort is reliable consistent and predictable along with self-control

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2 to 3 years

Autonomy vs shame and doubt - learning to exercise independence and freedom of choice along with self-control

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3 to 5 years

Initiative vs guilt - planning and executing a task for the sake of actively doing it

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6 to 11 years

Industry vs inferiority - developing as a worker and producer

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Adolescence

Identity vs role confusion - only care about yourself might date but not long term

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Early adulthood

Intimacy vs isolations - friendships, longer-term romantic relationships or you isolate yourself

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Middle adulthood

Generativity vs stagnation - leaving a legacy

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Late adulthood

Integrity vs despair - life review having regrets, not knowing if you did all you wanted to do in ur life, coming to terms with death

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What is the amygdala

It deals with processing emotions

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