American History II Vocab -- All Chapters

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containment

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chapter 7 page 700ish

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157 Terms
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containment

the policy or process of preventing the expansion of a hostile power

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muckraker

a journalist who uncovers abuses and corruptions in a society

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3
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direct primary

a vote held by all members of a political party to decide their candidate for public office

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initiative

the right of citizens to place a measure or issue before the voters or the legislature for approval

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referendum

the practice of letting voters accept or reject measures proposed by the legislature

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recall

the right that enables voters to remove unsatisfactory elected officials from office

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suffrage

the right to vote

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8
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prohibition

laws banning the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages

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Social Darwinism

a philosophy based on Charles Darwin's theories of evolution and natural selection, asserting that humans have developed through competition and natural selection with only the strongest surviving

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arbitration

settling a dispute by agreeing to accept the decision of an impartial outsider

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insubordination

disobedience to authority

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12
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direct tax

a tax imposed directly on a person or their property

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13
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indirect tax

a tax that someone pays, but the tax burden falls on someone else

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14
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income tax

a tax based on the net income of a person or a business

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15
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unfair trade practices

trading practices that derive a gain at the expense of competition

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16
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imperialism

the actions used by one nation to exercise political or economic control over a smaller or weaker nation

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protectorate

a country that is technically independent but is actually under the control of another country

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18
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yellow journalism

type of sensational, biased, and often false reporting for the sake of attracting readers

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autonomy

the quality of or state of being self-governing

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20
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jingoism

extreme nationalism marked by aggressive foreign policy

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21
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sphere of influence

section of a country where a foreign nation enjoys special rights and powers

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Open Door policy

a policy that allowed each foreign nation in China to trade freely in the other nations' spheres of influence

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23
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dollar diplomacy

a policy of joining the business interests of a country with its diplomatic interests abroad

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24
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guerillas

armed fighters who carry out surprise attacks

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25
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gross national product

The total value of goods and services, including income received from abroad, produced by the residents of a country within a specific time period, usually one year.

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entrepreneur

A person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a business.

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laissez-faire

Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs.

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land grant

a grant of land by the federal government, especially for roads, railroads, or agricultural colleges

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corporation

A business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts

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economies of scale

the reduction in the cost of a good brought about especially by increased production at a given facility

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monopoly

total control of a type of industry by one person or one company

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trust

a combination of firms or corporations formed by a legal agreement, especially to reduce competition

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holding company

a company whose primary business is owning a controlling share of stock in other companies

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34
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deflation

a decline in the volume of available money or credit that results in lower prices, and therefore increases the buying power of money

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35
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industrial union

an organization of common laborers and craft workers in a particular industry

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36
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lockout

a company tool to fight union demands by refusing to allow employees to enter its facilities to work

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injunction

a court order whereby one is required to do or to refrain from doing a specified act

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closed shop

an agreement in which a company agrees to hire only union members

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immigrant

one who enters and becomes established in a country other than that of his or her original nationality

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40
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nativism

A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones

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41
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skyscraper

a very tall building

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42
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tenement

multifamily apartments, usually dark, crowded, and barely meeting minimum living standards

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43
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political machine

an organization linked to a political party that often controlled local government

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party boss

the person in control of a political machine

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45
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graft

the acquisition of money in dishonest ways, as in bribing a politician

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46
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individualism

the belief that no matter what a person's background is, he or she can still become successful through effort

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philanthropy

providing money to support humanitarian or social goals

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48
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settlement house

an institution located in a poor neighborhood that provided numerous community services such as medical care, child care, libraries, and classes in English

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49
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Americanization

process of acquiring or causing a person to acquire American traits and characteristics

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50
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populism

a political movement founded in the 1890s representing mainly farmers that favored free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other large industries

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51
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greenback

unit of paper currency first issued by the federal government during the Civil War

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52
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inflation

an ongoing increase in prices and decrease in the value of money

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cooperative

a store where farmers buy products from each other; an enterprise owned and operated by those who use its services

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graduated income tax

a tax based on the net income of an individual or business and which taxes, different income levels at different rates

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55
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poll tax

A tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote

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segregation

Separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences

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Jim Crow laws

statues enacted to enforce segregation

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58
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lynch

to execute, by hanging, without lawful approval

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propoganda

the spreading of ideas about an institution or individual for the purpose of influencing opinion

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militarism

a policy of aggressive military preparedness

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nationalism

loyalty and devotion to a nation

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contraband

goods whose importation, exportation, or possession is illegal

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Stock Market

a system for buying and selling stocks in corporations

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bull market

a long period of rising stock prices

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65
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speculation

act of buying stocks at great risk with the anticipation that that prices will rise

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margin

buying a stock by paying only a fraction of the stock price and borrowing the rest

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margin call

demand by a broker that investors pay back loans made for stocks purchased on margin

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68
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bank run

persistent and heavy demands by a bank's depositors, creditors, or customers to withdraw money

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installment

regular periodic payment made to pay off the cost of an item when buying it on credit

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bailiff

minor officer of the courts

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71
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hobo

a homeless and usually penniless wanderer

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soap opera

a serial drama on television or radio using melodramatic situations

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73
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public works

protects such as highways, parks

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74
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relief

aid in the form of money or supplies for those in need

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75
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foreclose

to take possession of a property from a mortgager because of defaults on payments

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76
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polio

abbreviated term for poliomyelitis, an acute infactious disease affecting the skeletal muscles, often resulting in permanent disability and deformity

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77
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concentration camp

a camp where persons are detained or confined

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78
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extermination camp

a camp where men, women, and children were sent to be executed

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strategic materials

items needed for fighting a war

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80
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internationalism

a nation policy of actively trading with foreign countreis t ofoster peace and prosperity

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charter

a constitution

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82
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satellite nations

nations politically and economically dominated or controlled by another more powerful country

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83
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Iron Curtain

the political and military barrier that isolated Soviet-controlled countries of Eastern Europe after World War II

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limited war

a war fought with limited commitment of resources to achieve a limited objective, such as containing communism

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censure

to express a formal disapproval of an action

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fallout

radioactive particles dispersed by a nuclear explosion

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massive retaliation

a policy of threatening a massive response, including the use of nuclear weapons, against a Communist state trying to seize a peaceful state by force

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brinkmanship

the practice of pushing a dangerous situation to the limit to force an opponent to back down

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covert

not openly shown or engaged in; secret

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developing nation

a nation whose economy is primarily agricultural

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91
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military-industrial complex

an informal relationship that some people believe exists between the military and the defense industry to promote greater military spending and influence government policy

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disenfranchise

to deprive of the right to vote

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cost-plus

a government contract to pay a manufacturer the cost to produce an item plus a guaranteed percentage

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Sunbelt

a new industrial region in southern California and the Deep South that developed during World War II

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Victory Suit

a men’s suit with no vest, no cuffs, a short jacket, and narrow lapels, worn during WWII in order to save fabric for the war effort

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rationing

restricting the amount of an item an individual can have due to a limited supply

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victory garden

garden planted by citizens during war to raise vegetables for home use, leaving more for the troops

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amphtrac

an amphibious tractor used to move troops from ships to shore

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kamikaze

during World War II, a Japanese suicide pilot whose mission was to crash into his target

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Periphery

the outer boundary of something

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