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anthropology

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131 Terms

1

anthropology

studies what it means to be a human across time and space, holistic and comparative discipline

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culture

complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals, laws, customs, and any other habits acquired by man as a member of society, is not stagnant and has levels- food, clothing, music, religion, language, etc.

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the 6 facets of culture

it its learned, shared, symbolic, integrated, all encompassing, and adaptive/maladaptive

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when was anthropology established as a discipline?

1904

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franz boas

  • seen as founder of american anthropology

  • historical particularism

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what are the subdisciplines of anthropology

cultural, archaeological, biological, and linguistic

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overinnovation

too much change

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underdifferentiation

seeing less developed countries as the same, ignoring cultural divesity

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9

scientific medicine

technology, biology, neurology, surgery, applications, diagnositics

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western medicine

practice of medicine in a particular modern western nation (culture)

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11

public anthropology

efforts to extend anthropology’s visibility beyond academia to demonstrate its public policy relevance

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12

cabinets of curiosities

owned by religious and political leaders in renaissance europe, objects kept by elite leaders as proof of the texts and historical accounts they were trying to justify

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13

ethnography

provides an account of a community, society, or culture through research, collects data, is descriptive

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ethnology

study of sociocultural differences and similarities; examines, interprets, and analyzes the results of ethnography, synthesizes the data and compares

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15

biological anthropology

study of human biological variation through time as it exists today

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16

5 specialities of biological anth

paleoanthrpology (skeltal remains and fossils), human genetics (forensics), human growth and development, human biological plasticity (adaptable traits), primatology (primates/human ancestery)

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linguistic anthropology

study of language and linguistic diversity in time, space, and society

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sociolinguistics

study of language in society, investigates relationships between social and lingusitic variations

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19

archaeological anthropology

different from other subdisciplines because it uses/focuses on remains, study of human behavior and cultural patterns and processes through a culture’s material remains- artifacts, garbage, burials, food remains, stuctures

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20

paleoecology

the study of ecosystems in the past

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21

prehistoric vs historic

historic implies a written record, prehistoric has little to no written record and often focuses on the underrepresented (bc written records often are writen by the “elite”)

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scientific process

observation→ question→ create hypothesis→ testing→ comparing results → conclusion→ new hypothesis

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hypothesis

suggested but, as of yet, unverified explanation

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association

observes relationship between two or more measured variables, a covariation of variables

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theory

set of logically connected ideas formulated to explain not just one, but many associations

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26

applied anthro focuses on 3 roles:

  1. idenfity needs for change that local people perceive

  2. collab w those people to design a culturally appropriate and socially sensitive change

    1. work to protect local people from harmful polcies and projects that may threaten them

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27

paleoanthropology

study of human evolution throuh skeletal materials and related material remains

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28

steps to archaeology

  1. find a site 2. excavate the site 3. analyze cultural material

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29

non intrusive survey

surface survey (location, distribution, and organization of sites remains unharmed)

ground based physical sensing techniques- GPR (ground penetrating radar, like med

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intrusive survey

shovel tests

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31

4 principles of stratigraphy

  1. artifacts in the same soil statum will most likely date to the same human occupation phase

  2. a single deposit can only be as old as its youngest artifact

  3. the law of superposition: artifacts found in deeper strata will be older than those found closer to the surface

    1. any cut into a sediment or stratum must take place after that sediment or stratum has been deposited

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2 types of excavation

  1. horizontal- broad exposure of layer

  2. vertical

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33

archaeological record transforms

c transforms, n transforms, bioturbation

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c transforms

changes in record due to human behavior

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n transforms

changes in record due to nature

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36

bioturbation

changes due to critters- insects, burrowing animals, etc.

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floral turbation

changes due to plants- roots

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38

typologies

classification of objects according to type, usually chronologically

defines artifacts by certain atributes- material, shape, decoration, function, etc.

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39

relative dating

establishes a time frame in relation to other strata or materials rather than absolute numbers

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40

absolute dating

establishes a specific time/time period

  • radio carbon dating, argon dating, dendrochronology, etc.

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41

dendrochronology

number of tree rings= number of years plant has been alive

thick ring= wet and hot climate

thin ring= cold and dry

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42

molecular anthropology

dna comparisons used to determine evolutionary links

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43

medical anthropology

examine how the health of individuals, larger social formations, and the environment are affected by interrelationships between humans

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44

primatology

focuses on the behavior and social system of apes

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45

paleopathology

stress and disease, infectious disease, stress and nutritional deprivation

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46

what do bioarchealogists look at?

paleopathology (stress and disease), dietary behavior and interactions w the environment, trauma/violence/warfare, and demography and biological profiles, dental records (w paleopathology)

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47

osteobiographies

some ones life history told by their skeleton

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48

osteoblasts

create bone

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49

osteoclasts

break down bone

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50

osteocytes

mature bone cells

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51

two types of skeletal lesions

lytic lesions and blastic lesions

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52

lytic lesions

resorption, osteoclasts

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blastic lesions

deposition, osteoblasts

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54

isotope for mobility and population movement

strontium (and oxygen)

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55

isotope for dietary reconstruction

carbon and nitrogen

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isotope for weaning patterns

nitrogen

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emergence of agriculture

~10k years ago, increase in infectious disease, nutritional deprivation, arduous labor, social inequality, more dental carries

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forensics anthropology

studies skeletons from crime scenes, war zones, and mass disasters to reveal the life hstory and to help to identify an individual, as well as a cuase of death

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59

forensics anthropologists reconstruct:

biological profile, ancestry, cause of death, disease or illness

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60

culture

set of learned and shared behavior, traditions, customs, and ideas that humans acquire as members of societies

has levels

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61

cultures (plural)

groups with a shared set of behaviors, traditions, customs, and ideas

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62

enculturation

verb, the process by which culture is learned and transmitted across generations

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63

ethnographic techniques

  • participant observation- learning a culture through social participation and personal observation over a long period of time

  • interviews- conversations that maintain rapport and provide knowledge

    • genealogical methods- procedures to understand kinship, decent, and marriage

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64

emic perspective

local view of a culture in ethnography

  • eMic, me- my culture

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65

etic perspective

outsider view of a culture in ethnoographu

  • ETic, et the alian, extraterrestrial

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problem oriented ethnography

  1. develops research problem/question

    1. gathers information on variables- things like population, environment, and diet

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67

longitudinal studies (ethnography)

often multi-timed and multi-sited studying of people through time in multiple places

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68

ethics and cultural anthropology

  • shld invlude host colleague in research

  • establish collaborative relationships

  • include host colleague in dissemination of research results

  • ensure that somethin is “given back” to the host colleagues

    • get informed consent!

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69

What Ethnographic technique involves learning a culture through social participation and personal observation over a long period of time?

participant observation

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70

What is the name for an agreement to take part in research after being fully informed about its purpose, nature, procedures, and potential impact

informed consent

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71

symbols

signs that have no necessary or natural connection with things for which they stand

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72

Universal aspects of culture

Behaviors shared by all humans

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73

Generalities

Behaviors in most cultures

  • Life-cycle events

- Concepts of descent

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74

Particularities

Specific behaviors that often identify a culture or subculture

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75

international culture

cultural traditions that extend beyond national boundaries

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76

national culture

cultural features shared by citizens of the same nation

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77

subcultures

different cultural traditions associated with subgroups in the same complex society

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78

independent invention

the creative innovation of solutions to old and new problems

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79

diffusion

the spread of culture traits from one culture to another

  • one culture replacing another

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80

acculturation

the exchange of features when groups come into continuous contact

  • blending of cultures

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81

globalization

Expansive global culture change resulting from connectedness of production, communication, and technologies

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82

cultural relativism

idea that behavior should be evaluated not by outside standards but in the context of the culture in which it occurs

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ethnocentrism

tendency to view one’s own culture as superior and to use one’s own standards and values in judging outsiders

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84

Unilinear Evolutionism

Single line or path of cultural development

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85

Historical

need to understand present in terms of the past

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86

particular

the history of every society and culture is unique

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87

functionalism

An approach focusing on the role of sociocultural practices in social systems

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88

Configurationalism

View of culture as integrated and patterned

  • margaret mead (student of boas)

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89

Zora Neale Hurston

woman in harlem renaissance, African Diaspora, African American Folklore (e.g., Haitian Voodoo)

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90

general evolution, leslie white

over time and through the archaeological, historical, and ethnographic records, we can see the evolution of culture as a whole

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91

technology and people (in the context of evolution)

• 1. Technology solves problems of survival

• 2. Technology captures energy and diverts it for humans • 3. Societies that capture more energy and use it more efficiently have an advantage over other societies.

• 4. Therefore, these different societies are more advanced in an evolutionary sense

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92

cultural materialism

cultural infrastructure determines both structure and superstructure

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Cultural determinism

Cultural forces were so powerful that individuals made little difference

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symbolic anthropology

the study of symbols in their social and cultural context

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95

interpretive anthropology

study of a culture as a system of meaning

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96

structuralism

human minds have certain universal characteristics originating in common features of the Homo sapiens brain

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97

agency

Actions that individuals take, both alone and in groups, in forming and transforming cultural identities

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98

practice theory

Individuals in a society or culture have diverse motives and intentions and different degrees of power and influence

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99

lewis henry morgan’s cultural evolution

savagery→ barbarianism→ civilization

  • linear evolution (bad)

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100

4 main mechanisms for cultural change

acculturation, diffusion, globalization, independent invention

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