PMCOL 233 Midterm 2

studied byStudied by 8 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

hypochromic anemia

1 / 275

Tags and Description

276 Terms

1

hypochromic anemia

chronic blood loss

New cards
2

megaloblastic anemia

vit b12 or folic acid deficiency (large cells)

New cards
3

pernicious anemia

fewer cells bc of IF deficiency

New cards
4

hematinic agents

iron, folic acid, B12

New cards
5

hematopoietic GF

EPO, gcsf, gmcsf, magakaryocyte,

New cards
6

iron absorption

ferric iron ingested, ferrous iron absorbed

New cards
7

iron formualtions (oral)

ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate, ferrous gluconate, polysaccharie iron complex

New cards
8

iron formualtions IV

iron dextran, sodium ferric gluconate, iron sucrose

New cards
9

iron in body

RBC contain majority of iron in Hb

New cards
10

iron side effects

GI distrubances, toxic effects

New cards
11

iron chelators usage

for iron toxicity

New cards
12

iron chelators examples

desferrioxamine, deferiprone, deferasirox

New cards
13

desferrioxamine

forms complex to excrete in urine

New cards
14

deferiprone

orally absorbed alternative to desferrioxamine

New cards
15

deferasirox

alternative but GI bleeding

New cards
16

folic acid mechanism

reduction of folic acid to FH4 and FH2 (FH4 for DNA synthesis)

New cards
17

B12 mechanism

converts methyl FH4 to FH4

New cards
18

EPO

stimulate RBC production

New cards
19

EPO mechanism

released in response to hypoxia form kidneys (10% liver) and inhbits apoptosis to prevent early cell death AND proliferation thru JAK2

New cards
20

EPO side effects

iron deficiency (cant keep up so RBC draw iron from blood), thrombosis (dialysis patients need anticoagulant), hypertension (increased hematocrit and AT2), seizures

New cards
21

aldosterone effect

increases Na reabsorption in kidney and excretes K+

New cards
22

aldosterone triggers

low Na+ increase AT II

New cards
23

loop diuretics examples

furosemide, bumetanide

New cards
24

loop diuretic mechansm

inhibit NA/K/2Cl carrier so Na+ not reabsorbed and 2Cl and K+ pee out

New cards
25

loop diuretics adverse effects

excessive loss, hypovolemia, hypoklemia, alkalosis, hypomagnesaemia, hyperuricemia, reduced renal perfusion, hearing loss, rashes, bone marrow depression, contraindicated w sulfa allergy

New cards
26

thiazides examples

bendroflumethiazide, hydrochlorothiazide

New cards
27

diuretic purpose purpose

edema, heart failure, cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, renal failure, hypertension

New cards
28

thiazide purpose

hypertension, mild heart failure, resistant edema, diabetes insipidus, hypertension

New cards
29

thiazide mechanism

bind Cl site of NA/Cl co transporter to stimulate natriuresis and stimulate renin secretion also reduce Ca excretion

New cards
30

thiazide adverse ffects

erectile dysfunction, hypochloremic alkalosis, impaured glucose intolerance, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, rashes

New cards
31

aldosterone antagonists examples

sprionolactone, eplernone

New cards
32

aldosterone antagonist purpose

resistant hypertension, heart failure, hyperaldosteronism, secondary aldosteronism

New cards
33

aldosterone antagonist mechanism

compete w aldosterone to inhibit Na retention and K secretion

New cards
34

aldosterone antagonist adverse effects

hyperkalemia, GI upset, gynecomastia, menstrual disorders, testicular atrophy

New cards
35

triamterene/amiloride

prevent hypokalemia, inhibit Na reabsorption,

New cards
36

triamterene/amiloride adverse effects

hyperkalemia, GI upset

New cards
37

osmotic diuretics

only water excretion

New cards
38

osmotic diuretics adverse effects

risk for precipitating left ventricular fialure, headache, nausea, vomiting

New cards
39

electrolyte disorders

important in renal failure; hypoerphosphatemia; hyperkalemia

New cards
40

antihypertensive for renal failure

ACE inhibitors and ARBs; reduce risk for major CV events

New cards
41

vit D analogues for renal failure (FYI)

used to manage secondary hyperPTH

New cards
42

diuretics in renal failure

treat edema; lower tendenct to develoop hyperkalemia; decrease blood pressure

New cards
43

potassium sparing diuretics in renal failure

should be used cautiously, hyperkalemia associated with heart failure

New cards
44

renal failure and epoeitin

often have impraied EPO levels and anemia; need treatment

New cards
45

hyperphosphatemia

increased blood phosphate levels

New cards
46

chronic kidney disease hyperphosphatemia

hallmark, big risk of CV disease

New cards
47

hyperkalemia

high blood potassium levels; more severe than phosphatemia

New cards
48

medications inducing hyperkalemia

K+ sparing diuretics, NSAIDs, ACE inhibitors

New cards
49

phosphate binding agents

prevent absorption by forming insoluble complexes in GI tract

New cards
50

aluminum hydroxide

bind phosphate in GI

New cards
51

aluminum hydroxide adverse effects

increase Al levels in dialysis patients (toxic)

New cards
52

calcium carbonate

binds phosphate in GI tract

New cards
53

calcium carbonate effects

increase calcium levels: helps hypocalcemia in CKD but may cause calcification

New cards
54

sevelamer hydrochloride

non calcium based phosphate binder; anion exhcange resin

New cards
55

sevelamer hydrochloride effects

less likely to lead to tissue calcification, lowers LDL cholestrol, GI disturbances, affects fat soluble vitamin absorption, dont use in hypophsophatemia or bowel obstruction

New cards
56

how to treat hyperkalemia

cation exchange resin to bind potassium in colon

New cards
57

sodium or calcium polystyrene sulfonate

binds K in colon in exhcange for Na or Ca

New cards
58

sodium or calcium polystyrene sulfonate and sorbitol effects

increased risk for GI, bleeding, ischemic cholitis, perfroation, constipation

New cards
59

glucose + insulin mechanism

insulin activates Na/K ATPase to move K into cells

New cards
60

salbutamol

B2 agonist linked to Na/K ATPase - causes K uptake into cells

New cards
61

desmopressin

vasopressin analogue for nocturnal enuresis in kids

New cards
62

desmopressin mechanism

acts on V1 V2 receptors to faciliate water reabsopriton

New cards
63

desmopressin adverse effects

water intoxication (hyponatremia)

hypotension when low cardiac output

New cards
64

anticholinergics for incontinence

mAChR antagonists to prevent contraction s

New cards
65

M3 selective antagonists

darifenacin, solifenacin

New cards
66

nonselective mAChR antagonists

oxybutinin, tolterodine

New cards
67

mirabegron

B3 agonist

New cards
68

mirabegron mechanism

B3 agonist in detrusor smooth muscle to induce relaxation and increase bladder capacity

New cards
69

mirabegron adverse effects

BP, bladder pain, dry mouth, headache, dizzy, less UTI likelihood

New cards
70

2 types hormonal contraceptives

combined pill, progestogen only

New cards
71

combined pill

ethinyletradiol + progestogen

New cards
72

2nd gen progestogens (3)

noresthisterone, levonorgestrel, ethynodiol

New cards
73

3rd gen progestogen (2)

desogestrel, gestodene

New cards
74

combined pill mechanism

estrogen inhbits FSH to suppress follicular deveoopment, and progestogen inhbits LH to prevent ovulation; discourages implantation

New cards
75

combined pill adverse effects

nausea, tender breasts, flushing, breakthru bleeding, dizzy, depression, acne, weight gain, thromboembolism

New cards
76

combined pill benefits

reduce ovarian/ endometrial cancer risk, decreased menstrual symptoms, reduced iron deficient anemia

New cards
77

progestogen only pill

taken daily no breaks for people who experience complications from estrogen

New cards
78

progestogen only pill mechanism

makes cervical mucus inhospitable to sperm, inhbits implantation, and alters motility/secretions of fallopian tubes

New cards
79

progestogen only pill adverse effects

irregular bleeding, less reliable,

New cards
80

emergency contraception effects

nausea and vomiting

New cards
81

levonorgestrel

emergency contraception

New cards
82

long acting progestogen only

depot medroxyprogestogen IM

New cards
83

oxytocin

nonapeptide to promote contraction- receptor expression induced by estrogen

New cards
84

oxytocin mechanism

Gq GPCR yo increase Ca2+ to activate calmodulin and stimulate MLCK

New cards
85

oxytocin adverse effects

hypotensio/ reflex tachycardia, sustained contractions reducing blood flow and O2 delivery leading to fetal death/distress, uterine rupture, antidiuretic effects

New cards
86

ergometrine

only works onrelaxed uterus to cause contraction

New cards
87

ergometrin emechanism

a- adrenoreceptors and also 5HT receptors

New cards
88

ergometrine adverse effects

vomiting by activating D2 receptors in CTZ, vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure

New cards
89

mifepristone

induce medical abortion when followed by prostaglandin

New cards
90

mifepristone mechanism

antiprogestogen; compettiive anatagonist to sensitize uterus to prostaglandins

New cards
91

prostaglandins mechanism

analogs to induce myometrial contraction

New cards
92

dinoprostone, gemeprost

prostaglandin E2 analog

New cards
93

carboprost

prostaglandin F2a analog

New cards
94

atosiban

inhibit uterine motility (delay labour)

New cards
95

atosiban mechanism

competitive antagonist of oxytocin receptor; decrease IP3 decrease Ca prevent MLCK activation

New cards
96

treat infertitlity examples

clomiphene, gonadorelin, follitropin, lutropin

New cards
97

GnRH

buserelin, leuprorelin, goserelin, nafarelin

New cards
98

clomiphene mechanism

estrogen antagonist to promote gonadotropin release by inhibiting estrogen affects; promotes FSH secretion

New cards
99

infertility drugs adverse effects

flushing, vaginal dryness, bone loss

New cards
100

clomiphene adverse effect

reversible ovarian enlargement

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 29754 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(95)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard158 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard200 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard56 terms
studied byStudied by 74 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard41 terms
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard57 terms
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)