Bio 212L Final

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Plasmodesmata

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Biology

119 Terms

1

Plasmodesmata

Channel between cells, allows for transport of nutrients and other vital organelles

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2

Plastids(chloroplasts)

Location of photosynthesis, abundance of chlorophyll

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3

amyloplasts

starch biosynthesis and storage

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4

vacuole

remove waste and maintain water balance

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5

stomata

acts as a pore to regulate gases

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6

guard cells

open and close stomata by pulling apart and pushing together

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7

Trichome

hairs that protect plants from outside harms

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8

parenchyma

location of photosynthesis and food storage; makes up most plant tissue ; loose cells

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9

collenchyma

provides structural support and flexibility; condensed and provides stretch

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10

sclerenchyma

small fibers that are dead and provide structural support

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11

sclerenchyma- sclereids

mechanical support and protection(stiffness); dead; provides gritty texture

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12

sclerenchyma fibers

provide structural support; mechanical strength; made of sclereids

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13

tracheids

support and upward conduction of water; thin fibers; no nucleus

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14

vessel element

conduct water; no nucleus

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15

sieve tube member

transport organic compounds with help of companion cell : no nucleus

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16

sieve tube plate

connection site between sieve tubes ; pores

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17

companion cell

load and unload organic materials(sugar) into sieve tube members

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18

phloem tissue

sieve tube member, sieve tube plate, companion cells

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19

xylem tissue

tracheids, vessel elements, fibers

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20

root cap

cover and protect tip of roots

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21

region of cell division

area where cells are dividing and provides growth in length(primary growth)

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22

region of cell elongation

provides lengthening and growth of cells and loosens plant walls

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23

cortex

unspecialized cells located between epidermis and vascular tissue

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24

pericycle (bundle sheath)

regulates formation of lateral roots; surrounds and protects vascular tissue

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25

endodermis

barrier around vascular tissue that is selectively permeable

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26

casparian strip

found within the endodermis; forces water and solutes to cross plasma membranes; regulate water flow

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27

vascular cambium

found in woody plants; secondary growth (increasing diameter) and forming woody tissue

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28

cork cambium

found in woody plants, secondary growth that protects vascular cambium

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29

lenticels

Pores in bark that allow for exchange of gases

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30

leaf primordium

group of cells that will form new leaves

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31

apical meristem

responsible for the primary growth of roots and shoots

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32

lateral bud

involved in secondary growth and produces shoots

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33

pith

soft region made of parenchyma cells; transports and stores nurtrients

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34

vascular tissue in monocot roots

rings

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35

vascular tissue in monocot stems

scattered

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36

vascular tissue in eudicot roots

in the center

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37

vascular tissue in eudicot stems

rings

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38

palisade mesophyll

primary location of photosynthesis; contains many chloroplasts and elongated cells

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39

spongy mesophyll

allows for exchange of gases needed for photosynthesis

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40

cuticle

protective coating covering the epidermis

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41

gymnosperm plant

plants with needles; thick cuticle and sunken stomata

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42

stomach

Aids in digestion by manual breakdown and secreting enzymes that assist in chemical digestion

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43

small intestine

to absorb nutrients from food and further aids in the digestion process

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44

large intestine

removes waste that was not digested after absorbing water and salts

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45

liver

important in metabolization; helps to break down and balance nutrients in the blood and secretes enzymes, hormones, and bile

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46

gallbladder

stores and secretes bile produced by the liver

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47

spleen

controls the quantity of blood cells and protects the blood from germs

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48

pancreas

produces enzymes that breakdown food

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49

kidneys

filters blood and processes toxins and removes the waste in the form of urine

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50

ureters

tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder

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51

urethra

tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body

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52

urinary bladder

stores urine until the muscles relax and then empties the urine out of the body

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53

hard palate

separates the nasal cavity from the mouth and helps with swallowing and speaking with the interactions with the tongue

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54

soft palate

closes off the nasal cavity when swallowing

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55

esophagus

transports food from the mouth to the stomach

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56

epiglottis

flap that folds to close off the trachea when swallowing to prevent food from going down the airway instead of the esophagus

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57

tongue

helps move food around mouth and aids in swallowing; also helps with speech to enunciate words

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58

thymus

serves as a defense mechanism and produces white blood cells

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59

thyroid

produces hormones for metabolism

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60

penis

the male organ that is used for urination to release urine and for sexual intercourse to release sperm

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61

testes

produce sperm and testosterone

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62

ovary

produce and store eggs and secrete female hormones

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63

uterus

to support and nourish a fetus until birth; where a baby develops and contracts during labor

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64

heart

circulates blood throughout the body and is responsible for blood pressure

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65

cranial vena cava

the vein that transports blood from the upper(superior) region of the body to the heart

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66

axillary artery

transports oxygenated blood from the heart to the upper limbs

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67

axillary vein

transports deoxygenated blood from the upper limbs and region to the heart

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68

common carotid artery

transports oxygenated blood from the heart to the head and neck region; supplies oxygen to the brain

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69

internal jugular vein

transports deoxygenated blood from the neck and head region back to the heart

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70

external jugular vein

transports deoxygenated blood from the face and scalp region back to the heart

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71

renal vein

transports deoxygenated blood from the kidneys to the inferior vena cava back to the heart

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72

renal artery

transports oxygenated blood from the aorta to the kidneys

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73

caudal vena cava

transports deoxygenated blood from the lower (inferior) region of the body to the heart

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74

abdominal aorta

transports oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body

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75

umbilical artery

transports deoxygenated blood from a fetus to the placenta

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76

diaphragm

a muscle that contracts and relaxes to allow your lungs to inflate and deflate

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77

bronchus

carries the air from the trachea to the lungs

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78

lungs

organ where gas exchange occurs allowing oxygen to be transported to the rest of the body; responsible for breathing in and out air

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79

trachea

carries air from the larynx to the bronchi; warms and moistens the air before getting to the lungs

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80

larynx

protects the body from inhaling food into the trachea; allows for speech by containing the vocal cords

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81

erythrocytes(red blood cells)

circular in shape cells that transport oxygen throughout the body

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82

leukocytes(white blood cells)

oblong cell shape; responsible for defense mechanisms and the immune system

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83

platelets

small circular cells that float in the blood; responsible for clotting

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84

alveolus

location where the lungs and blood exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide

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85

spiracles

openings in the exoskeleton that allow for air ventilation because insets don't have lungs

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86

tracheoles

the tubes that are in an insects body that connect to air sacs that allow an insect to breathe

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87

operculum

the bony flap that protects gills

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88

gills

in fish where gases are exchanged between capillaries in gill lamella and water

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89

glial cell

cells that support neurons and create the myelin sheath

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90

neurons

transmitters that send and receive of signals throughout the body

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91

gray matter

center of spinal cord that contains the cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons

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92

white matter

axons wrapped in myelin sheath

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93

cerebrum

part of brain that controls higher thinking and processing sensory information

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94

cerebellum

part of brain that controls movement and balance

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95

pons

part of brain that controls unconscious processes including breathing

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96

hypothalamus

part of brain that maintains homeostasis with eating, drinking, temperature

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97

pituitary gland

part of brain that regulates growth, metabolism, and reproductive hormones

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98

medulla oblongata

part of brain that controls autonomic processes such as breathing and heartbeat; serves as a conduit

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99

optic chiasm

part of brain that allows for crossing of fibers that go from the eyes to cortex; allow for signals to reach both hemispheres

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100

olfactory bulb

part of the brain that processes information about odors from the nose

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