Meyers' AP Psychology Unit 5

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consciousness

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101 Terms

1

consciousness

our awareness of ourselves and our environment

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2

circadian rhythm

the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24

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3

suprachiasmatic nucleus

A small group of nerve cells in the hypothalamus that express clock proteins, which go through a biochemical cycle of about 24 hours. This sets the pace for daily cycles of activity, sleep, hormone release, and other bodily functions.

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4

melatonin

A hormone manufactured by the pineal gland that produces sleepiness.

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5

Eugene Aserinsky

(022) This pioneer in the field of sleep studies, who discovered rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, later served as head of the physiology and pharmacology department at Marshall University. He was the first to observe periods of rapid eye movements in sleeping infants in the early 1950s.

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REM sleep

Rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.

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alpha waves

the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state

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8

sleep

periodic, natural loss of consciousness--as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation

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9

hallucinations

False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.

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10

hypnagogic sensations

sense of falling Sensation of falling or floating weightlessly (Stage 1)

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11

sleep spindles

short bursts of brain waves detected in stage 2 sleep

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12

delta waves

the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep

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13

NREM sleep

non-rapid eye movement sleep; encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep

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14

paradoxical sleep

internally aroused; outwardly paralyzed

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15

effects of sleep loss

If you don't get enough sleep ghrelin increases, eat more than metabolism can handle, leptin decreases, don't feel full so you eat more depression, alertness, weight gain, immune system, reaction time, accidents

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5 sleep theories

  1. Sleep Protects 2. sleep helps us recuperate 3. sleep is for making memories 4. sleep also feeds creative thinking 5. sleep may play a role in the growth process

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17

insomnia

Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.

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18

narcolepsy

A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune and inappropriate times.

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19

sleep apnea

a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings

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20

night terrors

a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered

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21

sleepwalking

somnambulism walking while fully asleep A phenomenon primarily occurring in non

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22

sleep talking

Runs in families during sleep

- Speaking while asleep

Somniloquy, Occurs during NREM sleep, usually during first cycle, common in children

can occur in any stage of sleep; may or may not be associated with a dream

When people actually speak during sleep, sometimes holding complete conversations with themselves or others

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23

dreams

Sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind.

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24

manifest content

according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content)

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5 dream theories

    1. freud's wish fulfillment 2. information-processing 3. physiological function 4. activation-synthesis 5. cognitive development

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latent content

according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content)

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27

activation-synthesis theory

REM sleep triggers neural activity that envokes random visual memories, which our sleeping brain weaves into stories

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REM rebound

the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)

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29

hypnosis wheel

a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur

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postural sway

Being told you're swaying and then actually swaying

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sleep debt

lack of sleep that can only be "paid off" by sleeping Literally behind on sleep

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32

hypnotic ability

the ability to focus attention completely on a task and to become imaginatively absorbed in it and to entertain fanciful possibilities

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posthypnotic suggestions

a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors

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34

nicholas spanos

believes that people with multiple personalities are engaging in intentional role playing to use mental illness as a face

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35

social influence theory

theory that powerful social influences can produce a state of hypnosis

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36

dissociation

A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.

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37

ernest hilgard

The person associated with the dissociation theory of hypnosis. believed hypnosis invovles not only social influences but also a special state of dissociation

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38

psychoactive drugs

chemicals that affect the central nervous system and alter activity in the brain

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39

tolerance

The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect.

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neuroadaptation

The change in brain chemistry that offsets the effects of a psychoactive drug is called

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41

withdrawal

The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug.

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42

physical dependence

a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued

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43

psychological dependence

a condition in which a person believes that a drug is needed in order to feel good or to function normally a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions

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addiction

Compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences. A physiological or psychological dependence on a drug

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45

depressants

Drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.

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46

alcohol

CNS depressant (cortex and limbic system), legally drunk at 80

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barbiturates

drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment

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48

tranquilizers

Depressant drugs that reduce anxiety and induce relaxation (major) Drugs used to relieve symptoms of severe psychosis (for example, Thorazine); (minor) Psychoactive drugs with sedative and antianxiety effect; also used as anticonvulsants and muscle relaxants (an example is Valium).

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49

opiates

opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety

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50

heroin

A narcotic drug derived from morphine.

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51

endorphins

"morphine within"--natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.

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52

stimulants

Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.

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53

amphetamines

drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes

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54

methamphetamines

a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels

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55

crystal meth

A central nervous system stimulant substance with actions similar to amphetamine a drug that increases heartbeat/blood pressure, can cause mental health issues, strokes

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56

effects of caffeine

acts as a CNS stimulant:prevents drowsiness and increases energy level. Effects begin less than one hour after consumption

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effects of nicotine

sympathetic nervous system stimulant; increased HR; vasoconstriction, increased BP and cardiac workload; decreases the amount of functional hemoglobin and increases platelet aggregation

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58

insula

an area that lights up when people crave drugs; a prune-sized frontal lobe region

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59

effects of cocaine

behavior changes, dialer pupils, rapid heartbeat, elevated/lowered blood pressure, perspiration/chills, weight loss, nausea, muscle weakness, slow breathing, chest pain, confusion, seizures, coma

-acts by blocking the reuptake of certain neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. By binding to the transporters that normally remove the excess of these neurotransmitters from the synaptic gap, cocaine prevents them from being reabsorbed by the neurons that released them and thus increases their concentration in the synapse

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60

ecstasy

synthetic drug that causes stimulant-like and hallucinogenic-like effects in the user

a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition

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61

hallucinogen

psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.

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62

LSD

a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide)

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63

near-death experience

an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations

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64

effects of marijuana

pleasurable effects: enhanced sensation, relief of pain, distortion of time, relaxation

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65

THC

the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations

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66

psychedelics

These drugs alter perceptions of reality. They can affect sense of taste, smell, hearing and vision. Sometimes they are called ______________.

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67

cannabinoid receptors

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), active ingredient in marijuana, binds to these specific receptors many of which coordinate movement.

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68

biological influences of drug use

Having an identical twin with alcohol or marijuana use disorder

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69

psychological and social-cultural influences of drug use

-role of stress: may activate underlying vulnerabiluty , also may increase relapse

frequent disruptions/transitions, aggressive and hostile behavior from parents, parents with a problem of substance abuse

stress: may activate underlying vulnerability, may also increase risk of relapse; families- show ineffective communication patterns, high expressed emotions- associated with relapse; the role of psychological factors exert only a minimal effect in producing schizophrenia

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70

meditation

An intentional, self-produced state of consciousness induced by relaxing and systematically shifting attention away from day-to-day concerns.

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71

delirium tremens

disorder involving sudden and severe mental changes or seizures caused by abruptly stopping the use of alcohol A severe reaction that can be part of alcohol withdrawal, characterized by sweating, trembling, anxiety, and hallucinations an acute and sometimes fatal psychotic reaction caused by cessation of excessive intake of alcoholic beverages over a long period of time. It occurs rapidly and is characterized by difficulty maintaining and shifting attention.

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72

stage 1

hypnagogic sensations, hallucinations, alpha and theta waves, slow breathing and irregular heart waves

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73

stage 2

begins 20 min into sleep, theta waves that get progressively slower, sleep spindles, gets longer throughout the night

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74

stage 3

slow wave sleep, theta and delta waves, lasts about 30 min, difficult to awaken, vital for restoring the body's growth hormones and good overall health, diminishes as the night goes on

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75

stage 4

delta waves, lasts about 30 min, difficult to awaken, night terrors, diminishes as the night goes on, starts to ascend back through stages 3, 2, REM and then

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76

stage 5/REM

rapid-eye-movement = dreaming, paradoxical sleep, 90 min - gets longer throughout the night, genital arousal, REM rebound

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77

order of sleep

1 2 3 4 3 2 REM

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78

......diminishes as the night goes on

stages 3 and 4

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79

......gets longer as the night goes on

REM and stage 2

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80

number of stages of each [stage]

2 stages of 4, 3 stages of 3, 3 cycles of 2-1-REM

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81

circadian rhythm (how does it work?)

light activates our retina, signals cells in the hypothalamus part of the brain, those cells are called scn (suprchiasmatic nucleus) which signals the pineal gland to release melatonin

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82

circadian rhythm gets disrupted (what happens?)

(causes = time zone changes, work schedules,change in daylight savings [time]) then you have trouble falling asleep and staying asleep or trouble waking up in the morning. you might be more irritable, you want to sleep at inappropriate times or wake up at inappropriate times (by the zone you are in)

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83

alcohol (what happens when you drink it?)

it disrupts rem sleep

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84

differencials

when you take opiates you stop producing

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85

2 theories of hypnosis

role theory and dissociation theory

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86

sleep apnea (2)

Might be obese

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87

stimulants (types)

ecstasy, nicotine, methamphetamines, caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines,

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88

Depressants (types)

alcohol, barbiturates, opiates

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89

hallucinogen (types)

LSD and marijuana

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90

effects of drugs on neurotransmitters

alcohol mimics GABA; barbiturates are a GABA modulator and they increase GABA; crystal meth mimics dopamine and serotonin; nicotine triggers the release of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and opioids; cocaine depletes the brain's supply of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine; ecstasy causes longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons, it triggers dopamine release and stored serotonin release and then blocking reabsorption; LSD blocks the actions of serotonin; marijuana mimics endorphins, cannabinoid receptors, THC raises levels of dopamine in the brain.

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91

withdrawal symptoms of alcohol

delirium tremens, sweating, trembling, anxiety, and hallucinations

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92

withdrawal symptoms of opiates

extreme discomfort, the brain will lack the normal level of these painkilling neurotransmitters

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93

withdrawal symptoms of amphetamines

fatigue, headaches, irritability, and depression

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94

withdrawal symptoms of methamphetamines

fatigue, headaches, irritability, depression, insomnia, hypertension, seizures, social isolation, and occasional violent outbursts

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95

withdrawal symptoms of caffeine

fatigue and headaches

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96

withdrawal symptoms of nicotine

craving, insomnia, anxiety, and irritability

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97

withdrawal symptoms of cocaine

dysphoria, depression, sleepiness, fatigue, brady, and cravings

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98

withdrawal symptoms of ecstasy

dehydration/dehydrating

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99

withdrawal symptoms of LSD

may cause bad trips called flashbacks, that occur years later

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100

withdrawal symptoms of Marijuana

impaired learning, judgment, and memory, increased risk of psychological disorders, lung damage from smoke

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