special senses

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General senses

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1

General senses

Temperature, pain, touch, pressure, vibration, proprioception

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2

Special senses

Olfaction, gustation, vision, equilibrium, and hearing

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3

what are free nerve endings (dendrittes)

a highly branched terminal portion of a sensory neuron

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4

What are sensory receptors?

Interface between internal and external environment of the CNS

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5

what is the conversion process of sensory receptors called

transduction

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6

what is transduction

When a receptor reaches its action potential the neuron communicates the information to the CNS

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7

characteristics of free nerve endings

Very common, do not have structures to shield them from other stimuli, can be stimulated by temp, pressure, chemicals and trauma, the size of its receptive field affects its specificity

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8

free nerve endings with large receptive fields

Have difficulty with localization (sense, temp, chemicals, mechanical damage)

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9

what are the complex receptors

visual, gustation, hearing, equilibrium, proprioception

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10

receptors to the central nervous system location

routed to CNS tracts to special location in the CNS

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11

Where do touch and pain info enter the CNS?

primary somatosensory cortex (post central gyrus)

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12

where does visual information go in the CNS

occipital cortex

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13

where does hearing information go?

temporal

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14

where does gustation go?

insula

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15

where does smell information go?

temporal

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16

what activates a tonic receptor?

Stimulus increases and decreases according to the frequency of action potentials

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17

tonic receptor

always active

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18

phasic receptor

normal inactive

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19

what activates a phasic receptors

action potential reaches, then the stimulus lasts a short amount of time

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20

what is adaptation

eduction of receptor sensitivity when there is a constant stimulus

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21

peripheral adaptation

when the level of receptor activity changes. It has an initial strong response by the receptor but then gradually decreases

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22

Reduces information that reaches the CNS

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23

central adaptation

At the subconscious level it restricts the amount of information that reaches the cerebral cortex

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24

example of fast adapting

phasic

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25

what is an example of a slow adapting receptor

tonic

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26

where is sensory information processed

in the brainstem and spinal cord

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27

what is a nocioceptor

pain- found in superficial portion of skin, joint capsules, periosteum of bones, walls of blood vessels

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28

types of nocioceptors

type A, type B

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29

Type A nocioceptor

fast pain- prickling an sharp

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30

Type B nocioceptor

Type B- burning and aching

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31

thermoceptors

temperature

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32

mechanical receptors

physical distortion (touch or pressure)

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33

chemoreceptors

chemical concentration

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34

step 1 in pain perception process

receptors are stimulated until the tissue damage has ended but central adaptation will reduce the perception of pain. It can decrease and inhibit center within thalamus, reticular formation, lower brainstem, and spinal cord

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35

step 2 in pain perception process

neurotransmitters like glutamate or substance p facilitate pain pathways to the CNS

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36

step 3 in pain perception process

the level of pain experienced (especially chronic pain) can be out of proportion to the amount of painful stimuli and apparent tissue damage

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37

step 4 in pain perception process

neuronal pathways especially interneurons can be hyperexcitable

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38

What are endorphins and enkephalins?

Neuromodulators that reduce the level of pain a person experiences

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39

where are endorphins and enkephalins found

Found in the limbic system, hypothalamus, and reticular formation (dry brain v wet brain)

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40

What are the distributions among thermoreceptors

Cold receptors are more numerous than warm receptors, they are conducted along the same pathway as nociception.

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41

where are thermoreceptor info sent

reticular formation, thalamus and the primary somatosensory cortex.

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42

mechanoreceptors

sensitive to physical stimuli that distort plasma membrane

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43

what are three types of mechanoreceptors

tactile, baroreceptors, proprioceptors

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44

tactile receptors

touch, pressure, vibration-

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45

Where are tactile receptors located?

Free nerve endings, tactile, root hair plexus, tactile discs, bulbous, lamellar corpuscles

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46

baroreceptors

free nerve endings that detect pressure changes in blood vessels and parts of digestive respiratory and urinary tracts

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47

Proprioceptors

monitor the joints and skeletal mm positions

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48

where are proprioceptors

Muscle spindle and golgi tendon organ, free nerve endings in joint capsule. Utilized receptors in inner ear

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49

chemoreceptors

detect small changes in the concentration of specific chemicals and compounds

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50

where are chemoreceptors found

In respiratory centers of medulla oblongata-,Chemoreceptors in carotid bodies and aortic bodies

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51

what do chemoreceptors detect?

change in pH, CO2, and O2

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52

sensory information

Monitors specific conditions inside and outside the body

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53

where is sensory information detected?

sensory receptors in the peripheral nervous system

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54

what happens when sensory information/receptors are detected?

pass action potentials through the sensory neurons

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55

What is a receptive field?

The region of the body that a single receptor cell monitors

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56

Vary in size

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57

The larger the field=harder to localize the stimulus

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58

Touch receptive fields=7cm diameter

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59

Touch receptive fields on fingertips=<1mm

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60

what are the neurons that transmit somatic sensory information to the cerebral cortex

sensory pathways

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61

first order neuron

Sensory neuron that carries information into the CNS and spinal cord

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62

second order neuron (interneuron)

Sensory neuron that carries info to the thalamus

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63

where is the first order neuron found

Cell body in dorsal root ganglion

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64

What is decussation?

the crossing over of an axon before reaching the thalamus

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65

where does second order neuron happen

medulla oblongata

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66

third order neuron

Carries information from the thalamus to the cortex

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67

what are the somatic sensory pathways

posterior column pathway and spinothalamic pathway

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68

what is the posterior column pathway

Ascending tract in white column

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69

what does the posterior column pathway carry

localized fine touch, pressure, vibration and proprioception

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70

What is the spinothalamic pathway?

Ascending tracts in lateral and anterior white columns

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71

what does the spinothalamic pathway carry

poorly localized touch pressure, pain, and temperature

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72

what are somatic motor pathways

Control the skeletal muscles

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73

Involve at least two motor neurons

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74

what make up the somatic motor pathways

upper, lower motor neurons

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75

upper motor neuron

Cell body is in CNS processing center (primary motor cortex)

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76

lower motor neuron

Cell body is in nucleus in the brainstem (cranial nerves) or the spinal cord (spinal nerves)

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77

Innervates a motor unit in skeletal muscle in the PNS

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78

what are the three somatic motor pathways

activity is adjusted by the basal nuclei and the cerebellum (for coordinated movements)

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79

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80

corticispinal

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81

medial

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82

lateral

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83

what is the corticospinal pathway

cortex to the spinal cord

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84

upper motor neuron of the corticospinal pathway

come from primary motor cortex, Synapse in motor nuclei for cranial nerves in brainstem or spinal cord

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85

lower motor neuron of the corticospinal pathway

Come from cranial nerve nuclei or horns of spinal cord, Motor unit in skeletal muscle

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86

visceral pathways

visceral sensory system, visceral motor system

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87

what is the visceral sensory system

Carry sensory information from internal organs to regions of brainstem

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88

what is the visceral motor system

autonomic nervous system

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89

what are the five special senses

olfaction, gustation, vision, equilibrium, and hearing

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90

how many layers does the eye have

three layers

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91

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92

fibrous tunic

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93

vascular tunic

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94

neural tunic

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95

what is the fibrous tunic

the outer layer of the eye containing the sclera and the cornea

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96

was is the vascular tunic

the middle layer of the eye containing the iris, ciliary body, and choroid

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97

what is the neural tunic

the inner layer of the eye with the retina (phototreceptors)

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98

what two cavities are in the eye

anterior cavity and the posterior cavity

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99

posterior cavity

Contains vitreous humor - thick gel that holds retina flat against choroid coat

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100

anterior cavity

contains aqueous humor, which is produced by the ciliary body in the posterior chamber. drains through the schlemm into the veins of the sclera

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