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How do arthropods impact humans and animals?

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1

How do arthropods impact humans and animals?

Allergies to proteins or venom Annoyance Fear and mental stress Parasitism Transmission of disease pathogens

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2

Delusory parasitosis

A psychological state where p a person mistakenly believes that they are being bitten or are infested by a parasite

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3

Myiasis

invasion of host tissue by fly larvae

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4

Epidemiology

The study of factors determining the occurrence of disease in population

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5

Biocenosis

Term widely adopted in disease relationships to refer to the interacting organisms involved in a disease

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6

Biogeocenosis

Includes environmental factors as well as the interacting organisms involved in a disease

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7

Epidemic

Usually large number of cases of a human disease

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8

Epizootic

Epidemic associated with an animal disease outbreak

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9

Incidence

Number of new cases in a defined population during a time interval

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10

Incidence rate

Number of new cases per unit of time

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11

Prevalence

Number of cases in a population at a given time

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12

Endemic

Disease is stable, new cases balanced with increases in disease-free hosts

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13

Enzootic

Animal version of endemic

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14

Arthroponoses

Disease only occurs in humans

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15

Primary or definitive host

Sexual reproduction of the pathogen, required for maintenance of transmission

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16

Secondary or intermediate host

No sexual reproduction, not essential, but may enhance amplification

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17

Immunity

All properties of the host that confer resistance to infection

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18

Natural immunity

Immunity with no prior exposure to disease

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19

Acquired immunity

Immunity due to previous exposure, either transient or lifelong

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20

Amplification

General increase in the number of parasites in a given area

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21

Amplification host

Often short-term, may develop disease

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22

Reservoir Host

supports parasite development, infected for long periods of time, disease usually not acute

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23

Dead-end host

Either do not support infection level sufficient for transmission or become ill and die before parasite completes development

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24

Bovine Piroplasmosis

Cattle fever

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25

What are the six principal arthropod orders?

Diptera Siphonaptera Phthiraptera Hemiptera Blatteria Metastigmata

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26

Obligate parasite

Parasitism is the only means of existence, they have to parasitize to live

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27

Facultative parasites

A free-living form that infests a host, they do not have to parasitize to live

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28

Extrinsic incubation period

Time required after infection of arthropod vector until the pathogen can be transmitted

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29

Intrinsic incubation period

Time for pathogen to develop and cause clinical signs of disease symptoms in vertebrate host

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30

Venereal

Abovirus' also are transovarially transmitted Infected male infects during mating

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31

Horizontal transmission

Vector to non-arthropod

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32

Anterior-station

Parasites leave vector through mouthparts or salivary glands

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33

Posterior-station

Parasites transmitted via feces

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34

Salivarian transmission

Salivary secretions injected during feeding

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35

Stercorarian transmission

Parasites passed in feces host causes entrance by scratching

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36

Regurgitation transmission

Parasites mass and prevent successful blood feeding Leishmannia and Yersinia

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37

Assisted escape/passive transfer

Host macerates annoying arthropod vector

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38

Active escape transmission

Filariae break out of the vector's mouthparts

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39

Ingestion of vector

Grooming

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40

Vector Competence

Susceptibility of an arthropod to infection with a parasite and ability to transmit the parasite

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41

What factors make a competent vector?

Maintaining or increasing the pathogen size of the vector population limited or extensive groups of hosts vector longevity feeding frequency and probing behavior vector mobility physiological and behavioral plasticity

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42

Anautogenous

Eggs matured w/aid of blood meal

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43

Autogenous

Eggs produced without a blood meal

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44

What are some mosquito-transmitted viruses?

Yellow fever Dengue Zika Rift Valley Fever Chikungunya Encephalitis

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45

What are some biting midge transmitted viruses?

Bluetongue Vesicular stomatitus

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46

What is a tick-transmitted virus?

African Swine fever

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47

What are the three grate plague pandemics?

Justinian's plague Black Death 1855-1950 Asia

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48

Justinian's plague

AD541- Africa/<ed. Europe 40 mil deaths

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49

Black Death

1347- from Asia trade routes 25 mil deaths in Europe, lasted 200 years

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50

1855-1950 Asia

Over 12 mil deaths in India alone Plague was introduced into US from this outbreak

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51

The golden age for med/vet entomology started when?

1877 (was a 50 year period)

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52

What happened in 1848?

Josiah Nott published belief mosquitoes produced malaria and yellow fever

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53

What happened in 1850?

Livingstone published the bite of poisonous tsetse fly caused death of animals

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54

What did Partick Manson observe in 1877?

development of Muchereria bancroft in the body of a mosquito

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55

What is Koch's Postulate?

– Micro-organism always present in diseased host – Micro-organism isolated from diseased host and grown – Micro-organism obtained from pure culture injected into new host to produce disease – Micro-organisms isolated from the experimentally infected host.

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56

What is the first mosquito-borne virus?

Yellow Fever

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57

What happened in 1902?

Discovered dengue is transmitted by mosquitoes

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58

What happened in 1903?

The first transmission of spirochetes by soft tick

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59

What year did the USDA cattle fever tick eradication program start?

1906

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60

Why did Sanibel island eradication fail?

Because they were too close to the mainland, screwworm flies kept coming back (1954)

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61

What happened in 1908?

Chagas discovered trypanosomes transmitted by bugs

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62

What was the first virus transmitted by ticks?

Nairobi sheep disease

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63

What was eradicated in 1943

cattle tick fever

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64

Physical control

The use of various types of energy to control, attract or repel insects

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Mechanical control

The removal or destruction of insects by hand or by devices that are mechanical in nature

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66

Environmental control

One or more components of the environment are modified to the pests detriment

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67

Why were the entomologists drop from the program?

Less than 1000 cases of screwworm so they didn't need them

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68

1935

Baumhover - 1.2 million known cases of screwworm in the southern US

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69

1936

Laake found separation in primary and secondary screwworm flies

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70

1938

Knipling proposed sterile male control program for screwworms

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71

1961

Eradication program in Florida completed 400 males to 1 female per square mile released per week

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72

When were screwworms eradicated in Florida?

1959

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73

When were screwworms totally out of the US?

1966

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74

What are 4 of the 6 internationally quarantinable diseases?

yellow fever louse-borne typhus plague louse-borne relapsing fever

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75

What happened in 1889?

Babesia bigemina was discovered in cattle blood by Theobald Smith, the first zoonotic agent found

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