Week 6-15 film 1022 (from quizlet)

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Some Like It Hot

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Some Like It Hot

Director: Billy Wilder Actors: Tony Curtis, Jack Lemmon, Marilyn Monroe 1959, USA

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Rear Window

Director: Alfred Hitchcock Actors: Jimmy Stewart, Grace Kelly, Raymond Burr 1954, USA

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the comparative difference between the lightest and darkest areas of a frame Can help guide the viewers eye to certain areas in the frame High - Stark difference, dramatic Low - More shades, emotional qualities

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regulates how much light passes through the camera lens Unbalanced exposure can create different effects - film noir

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Slices of glass or gelatin put before the lens to reduce certain frequencies of light reaching the film Ex. Blue filters may be added to create the illusion of nighttime

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Tinting vs. Toning

Both methods of adding colour to black and white film Tinting - dipping strips in dye after they developed Toning - added dye to film as it was developing

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Digital Intermediate

Allowed color to be applied to only portions of the shot Can be used to express darkness or lightness in the scene

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Speed of motion

The apparent speed of motion depends on the relation between the rate at which the film was shot and the rate of projection. Ideally, the frame rate correlates with the rate of projection Silent films look jerky because they were shot at 16-22 fps, but projected at 24

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Changing the speed of motion within a shot Also changed the exposure, so lighting must be adjusted Can be a motif, or create parallels

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The manipulations of the film strip in both the shooting and developing phases (by camera and lab, respectively) Literally, "Writing in Movement" Always connected to the MES

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One uninterrupted image, with a single static framing (from the viewer's perspective)

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The shot produced from one uninterrupted run of the camera. One take may be chosen and used out of several similar takes.

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3 Aspects of the Scene

The photographic, the framing, and the duration

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Photographic Aspects

What type of filmstock is used, BW vs. colour, celluloid vs. digital, speed of stock, speed of motion

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Perspective Relations

Size and depth perspectives within a certain space The lens of the camera mimics the eye, but it is not perfect. There is some distortion. Different lenses render PR differently.

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Focal Length

The distance from the centre of the lens to the point where the rays converge to a point of focus

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Wide Angle Lens

Distorts vertical lines - they appear to bulge outwards Space appears deeper than it is Exaggerates depth - figures appear farther apart

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Normal Lens

Distortion is minimal, lines are straight We have the illusion of 3D space

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Telephoto Lens

Depth and volume are reduced. Planes seem squished together. Movement is slower, as actors are moving a greater depth than they appear.

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Zoom Lens

Allows the continued varying of Focal Length. Acts as a combination of the other lenses. Came into use in the 1950's. Developed by the military in WWII. Used to substitute the mobile camera. Adjusting the lens changes the PR. It is very notiecable.

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Anamorphic lens

Used in the 50's to create Widescreen films in 35mm Required a special projector - the film would squeeze the wideview onto the film, then the projector would 'unsqueeze' it

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Depth of Field

the range of distances in front of the lens in which objects can be photographed in sharp focus

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Depth of Field vs. Deep Space

Deep Space does not require sharp focus

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Racking Focus

The focus of the planes changes within the shot

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Using the edges of the film frame to select and compose what will be onscreen

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Aspect Ratios

Initially a near perfect square Silent: 1.33:1 Academy (1932, Former Standard of Hollywood): 1.37:1 Widescreen: Anything wider than 1.37:1 New Academy: 1.85:1 European: 1.66:1, 1.75:1 Cinemascope: 2.35:1

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6 zones of Offscreen Space

Noel Birch

  1. Right

  2. Left

  3. Above

  4. Below

  5. Behind the Camera

  6. Behind the Set

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Four Aspects of Camera Work

Angle, Distance, Height, and Level

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Camera Angle

Straight On - Directly Facing High Angle - Looking down on the subject Low Angle - Looking up at the subject

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Camera Level

Typically Level Bears on the sense of gravity Canted angles can show that something is wrong, supernatural, etc.

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Camera Height

Can be placed at any height

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Camera Distance

The sense of how far/close you are to the MES

Extreme long - dwarfs the subject, focuses on the setting (also an establishing shot) Long - background still dominates, but the figures are more prominent 3 quarter - mid-calf to the top of the head (plan American) Medium Long shot - knees up Medium shot - waist up Medium close up - chest up Close up - the full face Extreme close up - part of the face

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Natural Masks

FMs use part of the set/MES to create a Mask Ex. The doorway in the Searchers

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The Shining

Director: Stanley Kubrick Actors: Jack Nicholson, Shelley Duvall 1980, USA/UK

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Mobile Framing

Allows the filmmaker to change the camera angle, level, distance, and height during the shot

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Camera swivels on a vertical axis, scanning the space horizontally Creates a 'turn of the head' look

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Camera rotates on a horizontal axis Scans space from bottom to top

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Tracking/Dolly shot

the whole camera moves, going in any direction along the ground (The term tracking comes from the fact that it follows tracks)

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Crane Shot

Moves vertically, or at some angle forward or backwards

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Body Mounted Cameras

Operator steers the camera while walking. Servo mechanisms counter the shakiness so the camera seems like it's gliding The Steadicam was introduced in The Shining Can access more places than the dolly

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Handheld Cameras

Can reach virtually anywhere, but are very shaky Good for improvising unusual camera mounts

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Camera movement vs. Zooming

Camera Movement - PR changes. Planes appear the pass one another. Gives us the feeling of movement. Zooming - Our vantage point stays the same Zooming in an optical effect

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Frame Mobility

Camera movement can reveal new previously offscreen space, or change perspective Can reveal new objects/characters, give more volume, change focus, provide new ideas, guide our eyes, etc. The camera is motivated by the needs of the narrative

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short panning or tilting movements to adjust for figure movement, keeping them onscreen or centered

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Camera Movements and Time

The speed of a camera movement can affect how we see the passage of time in the movie, our sense of rhythm

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Long Take

Unusually lengthy shots, as opposed to a series of short of shots Reflects real time

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Swish pan

The camera pans so quickly that it blurs the image Used to show the passage of time, mask edits or transitions Ex. Citizen Kane

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Motivated vs. Unmotivated Camera Movement

Motivated follows a certain character/object. POV shots, indirect character perspective, etc. Unmotivated has a mind of its own, may reveal something of significance, draw our eye

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Shot Duration

Held longer in the days of the CHC (more emphasis on MES) Intro of sound increased duration 1905-1916 - shot duration was roughly 5s, Today's average is 5-8s

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In film making - The task of selecting and joining camera takes In the finished film, the set of techniques that governs relations among shots

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Joining two filmstrips through a splice, creating an instantaneous shift from one shot to another Supports the forward thrust of a film

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Cut in

Instantaneous shift from a distant framing to a closer shot

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The light of the first shot decreases, while the second incoming shot increases Can be used to show the passage of time

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A line/shape passes across the screen

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Can show forward movement, typically end a film

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Graphic Match

AKA 'match cut' Links two shots of graphic similarity together, maintaining Graphic relations between two shots

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Graphic Contrast

Can be jarring, change the momentum of the film, introduce new scene Used in Citizen Kane

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Areas of Graphic Relations

Colours in the scene, elements of the MES (lighting, figure behaviour, costumes, etc.), Cinematography

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Steady vs. Irregular Rhythmic Relations

Steady follows a pattern of acceleration and deceleration. There is no pattern in irregular

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Flash Frames

Inserting white frames to signal a scene change, flashback, etc.

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Impact on Rhythmic Relations - Apparent Speed

Moving cameras, having a cluttered MES, using music and dialogue can all make scenes seem faster than they are

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Establishing Shot

Presents a complete view of the scene, establishing Spatial relations between character, objects, and setting The climax of the scene gives us the closest view we will have

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Accordion Structure

Establishing shot, progressively closer shots to the climax, further shots, reestablishing shot

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Lev Kuleshov

Experimented with editing to create meaning, manipulate film space -Created performance by juxtaposing a man's face against the image of a bowl of soup, a prone woman, and a child in a coffin -Used Creative Geography: Juxtaposed two different shots of men walking in Moscow, made it appear that they were walking together to the White House

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Creative Geography

Editing to create the illusion of a spatial connection between two shots Ex. A cannon firing, then an explosion A singer on stage, then a cheering crowd

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Crosscutting/ Parallel Editing

Showing two different events that are happening simultaneously

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Cutting a time out of the setting. Events that we don't see.

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Ways to achieve Temporal Relations

Having no gaps in narrative progression, the use of a soundtrack, and match on action

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Do events occur in chronologically, or with flashbacks/fowards?

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Do we see the story in its entirety, or do we cut out dead time?

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Elliptical Editing - 3 Ways to create ellipses

sustains continuity between shots, but omits part of the duration of story events. Three ways to create ellipses:

  1. Cutting/Fading/Wiping/Dissolving 2)Using empty frames -have a man walk out of a shot, and then into the next one

  2. Using cutaways/inserts -show different events going on at the same time, then returning

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Overlapping Editing

When the action of one shot is partially repeated in the next

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How often do we see the story events occuring?

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Axis of Action

The imaginary line that passes from side to side, creating a semi circle in which the camera can be placed to maintain spatial relations -Maintains consistent eyelines, screen direction, and relative frame positions, relative space between characters In the Kuleshov Effect: As there is no establishing shot, the scene depends on having consistent spatial relations

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Shot Reverse Shot

The alternation of shots between two different characters that follows the 180 rule -May follow accordion structure -Re est. shot may be used to show how characters have moved within the scene, show dynamic between characters

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Eyeline Match

A cut in which a character is looking offscreen, and the next shot reveals what they are looking at -always a two shot structure -offers directional cues, maintains spatial continuity

  • POV is a special version of an EM

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Match on Action

A cut that splices together two different shots of a movement at the same moment in the action Ex. Two shots of a man walking through a doorway -Always a two shot structure -Difficult to do in CHC: One camera means having to readjust and film again - risk accidental manipulation of MES -Maintains Temporal continuity

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Compresses a large amount of time into a shorter sequence

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Continuity Editing: 5 Aspects

  1. Gives the impression of a natural diagesis

  2. Editing techniques are seamless/invisible

  3. Editing serves the narrative progression

  4. Spectator needs little conscious effort to make sense of what is on the screen

  5. Encourages passivity in the spectator

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Discontinuity Editing: 5 Aspects

  1. Unnatural diagesis - stylistic techniques interrupt space and time in the movie

  2. Editing techniques are highly visible/in your face

  3. Editing serves film form, not content

  4. Spectator needs conscious effort to understand what is on the screen - minimum coherence

  5. Activity needed to understand the filmmaker

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Discontinuity Editing

Any style of editing that contradicts continuity May violate the AoA Ex. Breathless

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Jump cuts

Elliptical cut that appears to be an interruption of a single shot Popularized by Breathless Makes the viewer aware that they are watching a construction May look like a shot is missing frames, can look like a mistake

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Non-diagetic Insert

Shots shown from outside the time and space of the story, prompting the viewer to search for implicit meanings Ex. Bandwagon - shots imply the failure of the show Interrupt the story flow, but can bring more meaning - toss up for the FMs

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Continuity as an Ideological System

The viewer is passive, thus politically submissive Hollywood films help construct societal norms and values In this sense, Discontinuity editing acts as a revolution

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Soviet Montage


  • Films are clearly linked to the 1917 revolution/communist takeover

  • The FMs of the Soviet Montage were influenced by continuity editing - action packed films, as Czarist Russia was focused on melodramas

  • Used the Kuleshov Effect

  • Focused on Graphic and dynamic relations

  • Looked at social constructs rather than individual characters

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Cheat Cut

FM may use a cut to hide a change to the MES (actor/prop positioning, etc.)

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The Kuleshov Effect

The idea that no single shot is complete or self contained -meaning comes from editing

  • it is the opposite of the long take aesthetic

  • We must find the meaning - fill in the spatial hole

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Five Central Directors of the French New Wave

Claude Chabrol, Jean-Luc Godard, Jacques Rivette, Eric Rohmer, Francois Truffaut

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Three Qualities of French New Wave Film

Independent, Experimental, and Self Reflexive

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Jean-Luc Godard, 1960 Took CHC style and made it Parisian -Both and homage and a parody of CHC Homage: Recognized the worth and beauty in the films Parody: Mocked the similarity in film form between CHC FMs, pointed out the overuse of conventions Discontinuity Editing: Use of natural lighting, crossing the AoA, lingered on insignificant details, use of handheld cameras, Only followed EMs, MoAs, etc. at important points of the film, where the audience needed to understand what was happening Viewer was very aware of editing

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Soviet Montage: Definition

a form of editing developed by Soviet filmmakers in the 1920's, which emphasizes the graphic, rhythmic and conceptual relations between shots over CHC's primacy of narrative—thus, relations between shots are often dynamic and discontinuous

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Government in the Russian Revolution

  • Sought to privatize company, so filmmakers refused to distribute to government owned venues

  • FMs hoarded film stock after limitations were put on the existing supply

  • American films circulated in the empty theatres, making them very influential

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A character's behaviour and appearance are typical to a certain social class

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Marxist Historical Dialectic

A way of looking at human history as aperpetual conflict in which a force (thesis) collides with a counterforce (antithesis) to produce from their collision a wholly new phenomenon So, A + B /=/ C A + B = X Can be seen in class systems - the clash of the serfs and the peasants Brought into film by Sergei Eisenstein

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Sergei Eistenstein

Brought the Marxist Historical Dialectic into film, applying it to aesthetics Believed dialectic conflicts should not only be in the film's content, but in its form Aimed for maximum collision between shots - Kuleshov effect bringing out implicit meanings We are active in synthesizing the thesis and the antithesis The image is more important than the content of the piece

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Battleship Potemkin

Eisenstein, 1925 The Odessa Steps Sequence Clash of the proletariat (thesis) with the Cossacks (antithesis), leading to the sailors and the crowd uniting against the government (synthesis) The steps represented class hierarchy, the lions represented the viewer

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The Untouchables

Brian De Palma, 1987 Paid Homage to BP, but turned DE into CE

  • Focused on individual characters instead of classes

  • Turns the message of the film - where Battleship Potemkin was clearly anti-government, The Untouchables put the FBI agent in a good light, as he saves the baby who is falling down the stairs in the crossfire -Look at American Individualism - Everyone who is unaware of the struggle between good and evil is fodder Here we see how editing style can change the politics and meaning of the film

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The Limey

Director: Steven Soderbergh Actors: Terence Stamp, Peter Fonda 1999, USA

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Singin' in the Rain

Director: Stanley Donen and Gene Kelly Actors: Gene Kelly, Debby Reynolds, Donald O' Conner 1952, USA

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The Bicycle Thieves

Director: Vittorio De Sica Actors: Lamberto Maggiorani and Enzo Staiola 1948, Italy

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