Period 2: Monarchical States to Napoleon: (1648-1815)

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Duke of Sully

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239 Terms

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Duke of Sully

Henry IV’s finance minister, established government monopolies to restore the finances of the monarchy.

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Cardinal Richelieu

Minister of Louis XIII

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Ann of Austria

Louis XIV’s mother

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Cardinal Mazarin

Chosen by Ann of Austria to the regent of LouisXIV.

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Bishop Bossuet

Louis XIV’s chief political philosopher, wrote that because the king was chosen by God, only God was fit to judge the behavior of the king, not parliamentary bodies or angry nobles.

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Jean-Baptiste Colbert

Louis XIV’s most important minister — he centralized the French economy by instituting a system known as mercantilism.

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French East Indian Company

Organized by Louis XIV to compete with the Dutch.

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Edict of Nantes

In 1685, Louis revoked the _____. He demolished the Huguenot churches, and schools, and took their civil rights away.

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William of Orange

The leader of the Netherlands and was committed to waging total war against Louis.

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War of Spanish Succession

25-year war broke out etween the French and the English and Dutch allies.

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Treaty of Utrecht

War of Spanish Succession lasted in this Treaty which left a Bourbon (Louis's grandson) on the throne of Spain.

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King James VI

He inherited the throne after Elizabeth died childless in 1603.

he was ill-suited for the role of English king.

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Puritans

They wanted to see the Church “purified” of all traces of Catholicism.

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Arminius

A Dutch theologian of the early 17th century who argued in favor of free will as opposed to the Calvinist doctrine of predestination.

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Petition of Rights

These included provisions that the King could not demand a loan without the consent of the Parliament.

It also prohibited individuals from being imprisoned without a published case.

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Petition of Rights

It outlawed using martial law against civilians, which Charles had used to collect his forced loan.

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Duke of Buckingham

In August 1628, Charles’s chief minister, ______, was murdered by an embittered sailor who blamed him for England’s recent military disasters.

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issue of exclusive rights

In January 1629, the Parliament was called, and both sides felt that the ______ would lead to the Parliament and the King’s conflict.

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English Parliament

In 1640, Charles called an ____ because he believed it would be willing to grant money to put down the Scottish rebellion.

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Short Parliament

This parliament was then called “______” because it met for only three weeks and was dissolved right after they didn’t meet Charles’s needs.

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Grand Remonstrance

a list of 204 parliamentary grievances.

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Long parliament

This parliament lasted for 20 years under Charles’ reign.

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Oliver Cromwell

He created the New Model Army, a regularly paid, disciplined force with extremely dedicated Puritan soldiers.

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The Commonwealth

From 1649 to 1660, England became a Republic — _______; a military dictatorship governed by Cromwell.

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Independents

This peopl wanted a state church, but were also willing to grant a measure of religious freedom for others.

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Presbyterians

These people wanted a state church that would not allow dissent.

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Test Act

An act passed during Charles II’s reign that effectively barred Catholics from serving as royal officials or in the military

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Declaration of Indulgence

It suspended all religious tests for office holders and allowed for freedom of worship.

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The Bill of Rights (1689)

It prohibited the use of royal prerogative rights, which Charles and James had previously exercised.

The authority to suspend and repeal laws was declared illegal

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The Bill of Rights (1689)

Parliamentary elections were to be free of royal interference.

All taxes were now required to be approved by Parliament.

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The Act of Toleration (1689)

It granted Protestant nonconformists the right to public worship but not Unitarians or Catholics

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The Mutiny Act (1689)

It allowed civil law to be used to govern the army, which had previously been governed solely by royal decree.

It also made desertion and mutiny civil offenses for which soldiers could be punished even during times of peace.

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The Act of Settlement (1701)

It was enacted to prevent the Catholic Stuart line from gaining control of the English throne.

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The Act of Union (1707)

This marked the political reunification of England and Scotland, resulting in the formation of the country known as Great Britain.

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Dutch War for Independence

Antwerp declined after it was sacked in 1576 during the _____.

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Peace of Westphalia

The _____ concluded the permanent closing of the Scheldt River that led to Antwerp’s harbor.

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Bank of Amsterdam

The _____ established Amsterdam as the financial hub of Europe, issued its own currency, and increased the amount of capital that was available.

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38

1602

In ___, the Dutch East India Company was founded.

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39

Dutch East India Company

The company was financed by both public and private investment and operated under quasi-governmental control.

This gave rise to the popularity of joint-stock companies.

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Dutch Autonomous

In the 17th century, the Netherlands was politically centralized, with each of the seven provinces retaining significant autonomy.

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House of Orange

The executive power came from the ____, whose family members had achieved prominence for leading the revolt against Spain.

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Stadholder

The male head of the House of Orange family.

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43

William of Nassau

the head of the House of Orange, powers increased tremendously.

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44

Franz Hals

A great portrait painter from Haarlem.

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45

Jan Vermeer

A great Dutch painter who composed genre scenes of everyday Dutch life.

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Rembrandt van Rijn

One of the Dutch Golden Age painters who focused more on a painting based on his, fraught with deep emotional complexity.

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The Night Watch

One of van Rijn paintings, meaning it transforms a standard group portrait of a military company into a revealing psychological study.

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Price Revolution

This is the significant increase in prices in the early modern period.

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Gentry

A class of individuals, who often had their economic roots in fortunes made in towns and cities.

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enclosure of lands

Members of the gentry were able to use their social connections to get local authorities to accept the ____ for their own personal use.

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Rural poverty

____ became significantly worse in the early modern period.

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Three-Field System

Crops were rotated across three pieces of land; mostly used in Northern Europe.

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Two-Field System:

Crops rotated on two pieces of land; predominated in the Mediterranean.

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Guilds

They emphasized working on specialization skills, with specific tasks such as baking or brewing taking place in specific quarters of the town.

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Capitalist Entrepreneurs

They provide money and focus on organizational skills.

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full-pledged members

Weddings are significant community events because the married couple are now considered _____ of society.

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patriarchal head

The father is regarded as the family's ____.

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economic units

Early modern families, whether rich or poor, can be seen as ____.

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public sphere

Men played a larger role in the ______; such as plowing, planting, and commerce.

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private sphere

Among merchant classes, the ______ includes bookkeeping and other administration of the family business.

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61

An Anatomy of the World

Written by an English poet, John Donne; he reflected on the multitude of ways that his world had changed as a result of the new discoveries in science.

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Thomas Hobbes

He invented the first movable printing press.

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Max Weber

The founder of sociology.

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Protestant Reformation

The _____ did contribute to a larger reading public by encouraging people to read the Bible.

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Scholasticism

A synthesis of Christian theology with the scientific beliefs of the ancient authors.

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Thomas Aquinas

The great architect of scholasticism, who took the works of Aristotle and harmonized them with the teachings of the church.

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Knowledge of God

It remained the supreme act of learning and was to be attained through both reason and revelation.

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alchemy

the perfect compound of the four elements in their perfect proportions.

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blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile.

four humors

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70

Nicholas Copernicus

He’s a Polish mathematician and astronomer.

He wrote Concerning the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres.

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Isaac Newton

Newton is also the founder of differential calculus.

He later became the President of the British Royal Society, an organization dedicated to spreading the new spirit of experimentation.

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Francis Bacon

What he did contribute to science was the experimental methodology.

He developed the known system: inductive reasoning, or empiricism.

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René Descartes

He developed deducting reasoning, or Rationalism.

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Rationalism

A better understanding of the universe was obtained by using reason rather than the experimental method to move from a general principle to a specific principle.

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Cartesian Doubt

I think; therefore I am, he stripped away his belief in everything except his own existence.

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analytical mathematics

Descartes was also a highly gifted mathematician who invented _____.

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Discourse on Method

Descartes’s system can be found in his ______ (1637).

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mind

The world of the _____involved the soul and the spirit, and Descartes left that world to the theologians.

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matter

The world of _____ was made up of an infinite number of particles.

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Blaise Pascal

He viewed life as an act of balancing. He sought to strike a balance between those who were utterly skeptical of religion and what he perceived as the dogmatic thinking of the Jesuits.

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Pascal’s Wager

He came to the conclusion that it was better to bet on the existence of God than not because believing always has a greater expected value than not believing.

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Jansenists

a Catholic faction that saw truth in St. Augustine’s idea of the total sinfulness of mankind and the need for salvation to be achieved through faith because we are predestined.

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William Harvey

He who, rather than relying on the writings of the Ancient Greeks, used dissections to show the role the heart plays in the circulation of blood through the body.

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Leviathan

Hobbes wrote in his classic work, ______, that life without government was “nasty, brutish, and short.”

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absolutism

Hobbes’s view of the depravity of human nature led him to propose the necessity for ______.

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Great Leviathan

The ______ — “Man formed states.” Men were the necessary constructs that worked to restrain the human urges to destroy one another.

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Two Treatises on Government

Locke’s ___________ — written before the Revolution 1688, was after William and Mary came to the throne and served as a defense of the revolution as well as a basis for the English Bill of Rights.

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Letter Concerning Toleration

In Locke’s __________, Locke attacked the idea that Christianity could be spread by force.

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Essay on Human Understanding

His influential _________ contained the idea that children enter the world with no set ideas.

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tabula rasa

At birth the mind is ________ — a blank slate, the infants do not possess the Christian concept of predestination or original sin.

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Immanuel Kant

There is no better answer to the question “What is the Enlightenment?” than offered by him.

His answer was clear: “Dare to know.

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freedom

Kant believed that all previously generations latched the ultimate reward, this reward is called _______.

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philosophes

The Enlightenment has historically been linked to France, where the term "____" is used to describe the period's thinkers.

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Republic of Letters

An international community of writers who communicated in French.

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Voltaire

He was considered as greatest philosophes

He was amazed at the level of religious acceptance and the freedom to publish one's opinions.

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Voltaire

He was also astounded by the respect the English extended to Newton when the scientist was laid to rest at a state funeral amid great ceremony.

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Deist

one who believes that God created the universe and then stepped back from creation to allow it to operate under the laws of science.

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Écrasez l’infame!

Voltaire’s famous anti-religous slogan.

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Baron de Montesquieu

He wrote one of the most influential works of the Enlightenment; the Spirit of the Laws (1748).

He became president of the Parliament of Bordeaux

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Parliament of Bordeaux

a body of nobles that functioned as the province’s law court.

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