Psych Final

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519 Terms

1

memory

the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information

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2

recall

a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier

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3

recognition

a measure of memory in which the person identifies items previously learned

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4

relearning

a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again

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5

encoding

the process of getting information into the memory system

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6

storage

the process of retaining encoded information over time

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7

retrieval

the process of getting information out of memory storage

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8

parallel processing

a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again

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9

sensory memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

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10

short - term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly

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11

long - term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system

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12

working memory

short-term memory that adds conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

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13

explicit memories

retention of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare

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14

effortful processing

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

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15

automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental information

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16

implicit memories

retention of learned skills or classically conditioned associations independent of conscious recollection

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17

iconic memory

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli

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18

echoic memory

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli

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19

chunking

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

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20

mnemonics

memory aids

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21

spacing effect

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through mass study or practice

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22

testing effect

enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information

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23

shallow processing

encoding on a basic level, based on the structure or appearance of words.

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24

deep processing

encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words

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25

sematic memories

explicit memory of facts and general knowledge

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26

episodic memories

explicit memory of personally experienced events

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27

hippocampus

a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit (conscious) memories

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28

∑memory consolidation

the neural storage of a long-term memory

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29

flashbulb memories

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

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30

long term potentiation

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

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31

priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one’s perception, memory, or response

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32

encoding specificity principle

the idea that cues and contexts specific to a particular memory will be most effective in helping us recall it

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33

mood congruent memory

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood

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34

serial position effect

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.

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35

recency effect

tendency to recall last item on a list

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36

primacy effect

tendency to recall first item on a list

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37

anterograde amnesia

an inability to form new memories

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38

retrograde amnesia

an inability to retrieve information from one’s past

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39

proactive interference

the forward-acting disruptive effect of older learning on the recall of new information

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40

retroactive interference

the backward-acting disruptive effect of newer learning on the recall of old information

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41

repressed memories

the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

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42

reconsolidation

a process in which previously stored memories, when retrieved, are potentially altered before being stored again

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43

misinformation effect

occurs when misleading information has corrupted one’s memory of an event

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44

source amnesia

faulty memory for how, when, or where information was learned or imagined.

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45

déjà vu

that eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before”

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46

theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events

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47

hypotheses

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

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48

operational definitions

a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures used in a research study

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49

replicate

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding can be reproduced

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50

case study

a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

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51

naturalistic observations

a descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

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52

survey

a descriptive technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group

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53

random sample

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

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54

population

all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn

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55

correlate

a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other

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56

variables

anything that can vary and is feasible and ethical to measure

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57

scatterplots

a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables

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58

illusory correlation

perceiving a relationship where none exists, or perceiving a stronger-than-actual relationship

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59

regression toward the mean

the tendency for extreme or unusual scores or events to fall back toward the average

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60

experiment

with a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process

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61

experimental group

in an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable

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62

control group

in an experiment, the group not exposed to the treatment

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63

random assign

assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the different groups

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64

double - blind procedure

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo

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65

placebo effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone

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66

independent variable

in an experiment, the factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

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67

confounding variables

a factor other than the factor being studied that might influence a study’s results

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68

dependent variable

in an experiment, the outcome that is measured

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69

informed consent

giving potential participants enough information about a study to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate

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70

debrief

the post experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants

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71

phrenology

study of bumps on the brain

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72

biological psychologists

the scientific study of the links between biological (genetic, neural, hormonal) and psychological processes

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73

plasticity

the brain’s ability to change

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74

neurons

a nerve cell

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75

cell body

the part of a neuron that contains the nucleus

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76

dendrite

a neuron’s often bushy, branching extensions that receive and integrate messages, conducting impulses toward the cell body

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77

axon

the neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands

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78

myelin sheath

a fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons

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79

glial cells

cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons

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80

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82

action potential

a neural impulse

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83

threshold

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.

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84

refractory period

a brief resting pause that occurs after a neuron has fired

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85

all or none response

a neuron’s reaction of either firing (with a full-strength response) or not firing

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86

synapse

the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

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87

neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons

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88

reuptake

a neurotransmitter’s reabsorption by the sending neuron

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89

endorphins

neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

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90

agonist

increase a neurotransmitter’s action

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91

antagonist

decreases a neurotransmitter’s action

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92

nervous system

the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems

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93

central nervous system

the brain and the spinal cord

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94

peripheral nervous system

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body.

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95

nerves

bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

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96

sensory neurons

neurons that carry incoming information from the body’s tissues and sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord

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97

motor neurons

neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands

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98

interneurons

neurons within the brain and spinal cord

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99

somatic nervous system

the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles

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100

autonomic nervous system

the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs

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