SOC 260 final

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151 Terms

1

marriage

a legally recognized union between 2 people

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2

monogamy

only legal form of marriage in US, 2 people interested in each other

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3

polygamy

preferred marital arrangement worldwide- 2 or more people that are interested in each other

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4

polygyny

2 or more wives

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5

polyandry

2 or more husbands

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6

serial monogamy

moving between relationships quickly, spends very little time single

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7

census family

a group of 2 or more persons related by birth, marriage, or adoption residing together in a household

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8

household

one or more people—everyone living in a housing unit makes up a household

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9

inclusive family

2 or more people related by birth, marriage, adoption, or choice, includes affiliative or fictive kin

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10

family of origin

family we grow up in

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11

family of procreation

family formed through marriage/childbirth

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12

family of cohabitation

family formed through cohabiting with others

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13

extended family

grandparents, cousins, in laws, aunts, uncles, etc

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14

kinship system

can be affiliated, a nonrelated person would be considered ___

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15

objectivity

suspend our own beliefs about a subject until we understand what’s being said

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16

egocentric

everyone is the same as us and must think the same as us

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17

ethnocentric

our ethnicity is superior to others

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18

media influence

tendency to sensationalize, highlights extreme cases, simplifies, appeals to most noticeable viewpoint

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19

confirmation bias

looking for evidence that fits our views

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20

hypotheses

proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.

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21

independent variable

stand alone, unaffected by other thingsvalues depends

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22

dependent variable

varied thing

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23

intervening variables

a hypothetical used to explain causal links between other things

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24

theory

general concepts/principles to explain phenomena, provide a framework to understand research

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25

scientific method

  • Step 1: Ask a Question or Find a Research Topic.

  • Step 2: Review the Literature/Research Existing Sources.

  • Step 3: Formulate a Hypothesis.

  • Step 4: Design and Conduct a Study.

  • Step 5: Draw Conclusions.

  • Step 6: Report Results.

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26

family ecology theory

micro, meso, exo, macro, chronosystems

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27

symbolic interaction

  • smiles, gestures, colors, language, how do relationships differ in different groups

  • criticism- underestimates role of large institutions and economic structures in interactions

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28

social exchange theory

  • “accounting” in relationships

  • assumes motivation=self interest

  • maximize benefits/minimize cost

  • reciprocity and balance are crucial

  • assets/liabilities as a mate, deciding on divorce

  • criticism- doesn’t address resource distribution

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29

family development theory

  • focus of family changes over time

  • dating, engagement, marriage, children, work/schooling, launching, retirement, death/grief

  • criticism- not applicable to contemporary families

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30

structural functionalism

  • societies are stable/orderly systems

  • relationships are a result of agreement by members of society

  • social institutions work together to help society survive

    • ex: functions of the family- produce and stabilize members of society, fill roles that ensure stability- expressive role and instrumental role

  • criticism- number of families that actually filled these roles was greater in the 1950s

  • women may work and be responsible for the expressive role as well (second shift)

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31

conflict theory

  • focus on inequality in the family esp around power and control

  • personal conflict- bad management can cause extensive damage

  • sources of power- legitimacy, money, physical coercion, love

  • criticism- underestimates cooperation, stability in families

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32

family systems theory

  • families are systems- change by one person affects others

  • boundaries, rules, roles

  • difficult to change- equilibrium

  • criticism- focused on treatment of families in a clinical setting

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33

family life vs industrialization

child labor, mechanized production, urbanization, gender polarization, fertility decline, crowding, alcoholism, crime, orphan trains

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34

family in 1900-1920

  • men go to WWI

  • child labor laws

  • flappers in office

  • mandatory education laws

  • divorce rate rises

  • pessimism about the future

companionate family

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35

family in 1930s

  • great depression

  • unemployment jump

  • family income way down

  • more traditional roles- divorce decreases

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36

family in 1940s

  • WWII

  • victory gardens, rationing

  • half of women in factory work

  • childcare assistance

  • marriage and divorce rise

  • after war, women move out of work

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37

family in 1950s

  • good post war economy

  • traditional roles and younger marriage

  • divorce rates decline

  • fertility increases

  • gov subsidizes education and white housing

  • poverty rate for 2 earner black families was 50%

  • teen birth rate increased

  • rate of babies given up for adoption- up 80%

  • 1/3 marriages end in divorce

  • middle class stay at home mom drug/alcohol use

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38

companionate family

  • middle class emergence

    • being in love

    • sharing household decisions

    • wives not required to be sexually restrained

    • children given more freedom, democratic families

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39

gender

social constructions of masculinity, femininity, and everything in between

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40

sex

biological trait of having male or female gametes (or something in between)

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41

hegemonic masculinity

a practice that legitimizes men's dominant position in society and justifies the subordination of the common male population and women

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42

emphasized femininity

refers to patterns of behavior that are organized as an adaptation to men's power, emphasizing compliance, nurturance, and empathy as womanly virtues

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43

second shift

women return home from work and then have to work even more on housework, childcare, etc

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44

Erikson’s theory of intimacy vs isolation

occurs in early adulthood, major conflict is forming intimate,loving relationships with others

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45

6 types of love

  • eros: romantic/passionate love

  • ludus: playful or game playing love

  • storge: love between companions

  • mania: obsessive love

  • agape: altruistic love

  • pragma: practical love

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46

Sternberg's theory of love

  • 3 elements of love:

    • intimacy- emotional component

    • passion- motivational piece- arousal and attraction

    • commitment- cognitive dimension

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47

attachment theory of love

secure- relatively easy to get close, not worried about abandonment, not worried about losing self

anxious- reluncant to get close, abandonment issues, but want to get very close, afraid to let them out of sight

avoidant- uncomfortable with intimacy, difficult to trust and hard to depend on others

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48

social media and tech

makes perception of relationships much different, online vs f2f honesty, 30% of adults have used dating apps

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49

jealousy

occurs bc of involvement with 3rd person, insecure attachment styles are more likely to notice, fear of loss +insecurity

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50

breakups

usually initiated by one side, bring improvements to subsequent relationships, similar across the board

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51

verbal communication

less of the message, one channel, more conscious, expresses basic content of the message

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52

nonverbal communication

many channels, more of the message, less conscious, but also imprecise and can have mixed messages

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53

channels of nonverbal comm

  • eye contact/facial expression

  • touch

  • proximity

  • object language

  • posture

  • paralanguage

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54

attribution theory

explanation for someone’s behavior- internal disposition vs external situation

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55

fundamental attribution error

  • when a mistake is made by…

    • others- it’s the way they are (disposition)

    • us- its the circumstance (situational)

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56

Gottman’s 5 horsemen of the apocalypse

  • criticism

  • contempt

  • defensiveness

  • stonewalling

  • belligerence/aggression

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57

how to improve communication

repair, soft startups- be kind not right, accept influence, positive sentiment overrides emotional climate

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58

50%

percent of married Americans

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59

endogamy

marriage inside your groups as a way to improve marital success

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60

exogamy

marrying outside of certain groups, especially family

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61

homogamy

marrying within the same groups- age, race, religion, social class, etc.

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62

marriage squeeze

gender imbalance reflected in the ratio of available unmarried men vs women- members of one gender tend to get squeezed out

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63

marriage gradient

tendency for women to marry above their status

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64

widows vs widowers

women who have lost their spouse vs men who have lost their spouse

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65

Cuber and Haroff’s types of enduring marriages

rocky+turbulent- unhappy and lasting

sweet and undramatic- satisfying and enduring

passionate- vulnerable to divorce

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66

1960- 13%

2021- 29%

% of households with singles

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67

cohabitation

living together in an intimate relationship without marriage

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68

50%

% of remarriages that involve cohabitation

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69

postdivorce cohabitation vs pre-marital cohabitation

post is more common than pre now

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70

62%

% of unmarried births to cohabiting couples

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71

civil unions

grant same protections as marriage to cohabiting couples

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72

domestic partnerships

grant some protections of marriage to cohabiting couples

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73

common law marriage

a legally recognized marriage between two people who have not purchased a marriage license or had their marriage solemnized by a ceremony

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74

replacement fertility rate

2.1 children per woman

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75

fertility rate

births per 1000 women 15-44, currently 1.784 births per woman

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76

20-34 years old

age group with highest fertility rate

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77

childless couples

unable to conceive

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78

childfree couples

not wanting to conceive

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79

20%

% of women with infertility

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80

infertility in women

  • obesity or underweight

  • extreme weight loss/gain

  • maternal age (over 30)

  • smoking

  • excessive alcohol use

  • excessive physical or emotional stress that results in amenorrhea

    • chlamydia, endo, PCOS

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81

infertility in men

  • age (over 40)

  • obesity

  • excessive drug/alcohol use

  • testosterone

  • high testes temp

  • smoking

  • exposure to radiation

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82

$233,610

how much it costs to raise a child

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83

authoritarian parenting

requires absolute obedience

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84

permissive/indulgent parenting

lenient, show more responsive and less demanding behavior

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85

authoritative parenting

rely on positive reinforcement and infrequent use of punishment

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86

uninvolved parenting

parents are not responsive or demanding

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87

Family Leave and Medical Act

  • covers those working for

    • private sector employers w at least 50 employees

    • public agencies

    • schools

  • conditions of employment

    • must have been employed minimum of 12 months before leave

    • must work at least 24 hrs a week

  • what is covered?

    • job is held up to 12 months

    • insurance is continued but no pay

  • conditions of family leave

    • care for newborn

    • care for receiving foster/newly adopted child

    • care for seriously ill child, parent, or spouse

    • serious medical condition of employee

    • Military Caregiver leave- 26 weeks to care for seriously ill or injured child, spouse, or parents of active military personnel

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88

work spillover

work demands and climate have effect on family, more common in women

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89

family spillover

emotional climate at home impacts work

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90

role conflict

positions we occupy contain competing, contradictory, or simultaneous role expectations

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91

role strain

occurs when the demands attached to a particular status are contradictory or incompatible

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92

role overload

occurs when our roles require more than we can give and we’re drowning in responsibility

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93

dual earner families

2 incomes to maintain a decent standard of living

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94

dual career families

focus on achievement and gender equality

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95

peer marriages

focus on fairness rather than gender tradition when deciding career needs, childcare, and household division of labor

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96

stay at home dads

usually disability, unemployment, retirement, school

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97

17-39%

rates of intimate partner violence

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98

prevalence of intimate partner violence

impossible to know actual rate due to underreporting

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99

situational violence

usually erupts during argument and doesn’t result in severe injury, most common

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100

intimate terrorism

one partner tries to dominate and control the other

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