Unit Three: Absolute Monarchs (copy)

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<p>Phillip II</p>

Phillip II

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<p>Phillip II</p>

Phillip II

King of Spain who built the Spanish Armada (Navy to attack protestant nations) - too bulky so they fail and Spain loses a lot of money (merchant ships attacked)

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<p>Roger Bacon</p>

Roger Bacon

Creates the idea of Empiricism - “practice makes perfect” - learning takes place through experiences and learning from mistakes

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<p>Rene Descartes</p>

Rene Descartes

Creates the idea of Rationalism - based on the idea of reason (“I think therefore I am”) - thinking and reading books

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<p>Mary Wollenscroft</p>

Mary Wollenscroft

Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women - one of the first feminists (women should go to school and university)

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<p>Thomas Hobbes</p>

Thomas Hobbes

Wrote Leviathan - about absolute monarchs (uses scientific method and determines there’s a need) - people are naturally selfish so one person needs to make decisions to get things done as a nation

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<p>Louis XVI</p>

Louis XVI

Ruled from Versailles who was the grandfather of Louis the 16th

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<p>Catherine II</p>

Catherine II

(“Catherine the Great”) - Queen of Russia who built schools for all citizens and abolished slavery

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<p>Elizabeth I</p>

Elizabeth I

ruler during the golden age of England - stops war between Protestants and Catholics (Anglican Church) - not married so there’s no heir to the throne

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<p>Jean Jacques Rousseau</p>

Jean Jacques Rousseau

Wrote the Social Contract - government should be a choice (the people choose - democracy) - suffrage (the right the vote)

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<p>Louis XIV</p>

Louis XIV

French absolute monarch that built Versailles, a party city filled with tons of gold (very expensive) - known as “the Sun King” because everything revolves around him - when he runs out of money he raises taxes

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<p>Peter l</p>

Peter l

(“Peter the Great”) - Builds St. Petersburg, a tourist attraction that makes Russia more appealing (instead of being the “redneck country”). People begin to view Russia as a beautiful country

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<p>Immanuel Kant</p>

Immanuel Kant

Wrote A Critique of Pure Reason - inventor of metaphysics that uses science to prove God is real

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<p>Bernini</p>

Bernini

Boroque architect and artist who designed the Vatican

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<p>Frederick II</p>

Frederick II

“The Great” - Prussian ruler who is a patron of arts and gives citizens some freedoms (mild form of democracy) - expands Prussian borders (very successful at war)

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<p>John Locke</p>

John Locke

Wrote Two Treatises of Government - all humans have Natural Rights (life, liberty, freedoms, property) that gov. needs to protect

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<p>Galileo</p>

Galileo

Invents to telescope which allows astronomers to test their theories - focuses on heliocentricism

Scientific Method - process used to test if theories are true or not

Wrote a book on heliocentrism that’s read by pope - brought before inquisition and chooses to recount his words instead of being executed

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<p>Montesquieu</p>

Montesquieu

wrote The Spirit of the Laws - divide government between three branches (executive, legislative, judicial) - introduces checks and balances (veto, impeach, overrride)

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<p>Charles I</p>

Charles I

Son of James I that rules England as an Absolute Monarch - does whatever he wants - signs the petition of right and executes part of parliament when they follow it - executed by parliament after civil war

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<p>Israel Putnam</p>

Israel Putnam

“Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes” - battle of bunker hill

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<p>George Washington</p>

George Washington

First president of the United States and head commander of colonials

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<p>Patrick Henry</p>

Patrick Henry

Give me liberty or give me death - American attorney and founding father

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<p>Thomas Jefferson</p>

Thomas Jefferson

author of the Declaration of Independence - third president

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<p>Maximilien Robespierre</p>

Maximilien Robespierre

Leader of the Committee of Public Safety - finds any enemies of the state and guillotines them (no one is safe) - Reign of terror

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<p>Arthur Wellesy</p>

Arthur Wellesy

First Duke of Wellington who defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo

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<p>Thomas Paine</p>

Thomas Paine

Wrote the book Common Sense - “no taxation without representation” - some people agree with this, some don’t (America splits into two groups)

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<p>Charles II</p>

Charles II

Son of Charles I who returns the monarchy to England in The Glorious Revolution (after Cromwell dies) - also known as the restoration

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<p>Oliver Cromwell</p>

Oliver Cromwell

Puritan put as the Lord Protector of England after Civil War. Massacres Catholics in Ireland and Scotland (become calvanist or die) so they become under control of England. Rules by martial law (rules with army), passes calvanist laws - makes people mad.

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<p>Napoleon Bonaparte</p>

Napoleon Bonaparte

Great military leader in France - first emperor in France - exiled to Elba and St. Helena Island

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The Ambassadors

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The Descent from the Cross

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The Crucifixion of Saint Peter - Caravaggio

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Equestrian portrait of Charles l

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The Maids of Honor

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The Burial of Count Orgaz

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<p>who was it painted by</p>

who was it painted by

El Greco

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<p>who was it painted by</p>

who was it painted by

Frans Hals

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<p>who was it painted by</p>

who was it painted by

Caravaggio

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<p>who was it painted by</p>

who was it painted by

Rembrandt van Rijn

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<p>who was it painted by</p>

who was it painted by

Jan Vermeer

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<p>who was it painted by</p>

who was it painted by

Diego Valezquez

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<p>who was it painted by</p>

who was it painted by

Peter Paul Rubens

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<p>who was it painted by</p>

who was it painted by

Van Dyck

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<p>who was it painted by</p>

who was it painted by

Hans Holbein

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<p>who was it painted by</p>

who was it painted by

Nicholas Poussin

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<p></p>

Laughing Cavalier

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<p></p>

Et in Arcadia Ego

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<p></p>

The Night Watch

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<p></p>

Maid Pouring Milk

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Political power during the age of absolutism

Absolute monarchs - total control

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Religious Wars (Age of Absolutism)

Protestants vs. Catholics - civil wars and Protestant nations vs. Catholic nations

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Spain - Age of absolutism

Hapsburg family - Phillip II was the King of Spain (spanish Armada)

Armada failing is a power vacuum - no Spanish power in New World so England can take over

30 years war - war against Germany (founder of Protestants) - huge failure so they lose more money

Spain is no longer a superpower

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France - Age of Absolutism

Bourbons - ruling family - King Louis XIV (sun king who built versailles)

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England - Age of Absolutism

Tudors - ruling family - Queen Elizabeth I

British Navy defeats Spanish Armada, Shakespeare, Anglican church stops war

James I - reluctant ruler (king of scotland and distant cousin of elizabeth)

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Prussia (Poland) - Age of Absolutism

Hohenzollern - ruling family - Frederick the Great

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Russia - Age of Absolutism

Romanov - ruling family - Peter the Great (St. Petersburg) and Catherine the Great (schools and outlaws slavery)

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Scientific revolution

Scientists begin to challenge accepted knowledge

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Science before Scientific Revolution

Based on Bible, Tradition, Alchemy (magic, potions, gold), and Astronomy

Ptolemy, Galen, Aristotle - “world’s greatest scientists” - Greek

Catholic Church feels threatened by S.R. (catholic country scientists sent before Inquisition)

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Factors leading to Scientific Revolution

Exploration - bringing new knowledge back

Renaissance - new ideas

Printing Press - vernacular, new learning

Universities - People are educated and discuss, test theories

Information is being shared

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Rationalism

Rene Descartes comes up with the idea - based on the idea of reason (man has the ability to think and discover) - thinking and reading books

Cogito ergo sum - “i think therefore I am”

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Empiricism

“Invented by Roger Bacon” - learning takes place through experience (practice makes perfect)

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Nicolaus Copernicus

Polish (protestant country) Astronomer who invented heliocentric theory (planets revolve around the SUN)

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Johannes Kepler

Swiss (protestant) astronomer who invented the laws of planetary motion - how the planets move

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Andreas Vesalius

“Father of Anatomy” who was the first to sketch the total human body (skeleton, organs, muscles)

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William Harvey

First to map out circulatory system (veins, arteries, heart)

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Anton van Leeuwenhoek

Inventor of the microscope who is the first to study microorganisms

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Physics

Study of forces within nature

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Sir Isaac Newton

Uses scientific method to invent calculus and PHYSICS - laws of motion, gravity, inertia

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Enlightenment - Age of Reason

Using Scientific Method to challenge ideas, such as absolutism (is it a good form of government?)

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Philosophes

“Lovers of Wisdom” - leading thinkers of this time period - writes books with an impact on society

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Salon

Meeting place where people discuss new ideas (popular form of entertainment for men and women)

Explosion of knowledge because Philosophes develop new ideas at salons about government and other issues

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Branches of government at different levels

Branch - Federal, State, Local

Executive - President, Governor, Manager

Legislative - Congress, General Assembly, Town Council

Judicial - Supreme Court, Superior, Probate

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Voltaire

Wrote Candide - satire about government

“I may disagree with what you have to say, but I will defend your right to say it”

Cares about liberties/freedoms people should have - especially freedom of speech

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Denis Diderot

Wrote the Encyclopedia - 35 volume book with excerpts of the greatest ideas of Renaissance, Social Revolution, Philosophes, etc.

Mass produced in Vernacular

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Enlightened Despots

Absolute monarchs who used ideas of the enlightenment to make positive changes in their nations

Building schools, outlawing slavery, religious freedom, etc.

Absolute monarchs who don’t embrace these ideas are overthrown - revolution

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Baroque

A style of art and literature that exudes power - “the grand style”, larger than life - used to intimidate (ex. Versailles, Lorenzo Bernini)

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Rococo

More playful, about ornate, delicate, gentle design - Antoine Watteau, Tiepolo (both famous rococo artists) - subject matter is lighter (landscape, people enjoying themselves)

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Classical Composers - Baroque vs. Rococo?

Bach - Baroque (Chamber)

Handel - Baroque (Chamber)

Haydn - Baroque (Chamber)

Mozart - Rococo (Action in music)

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Henry Fielding

The History of Tom Jones - Satire about poverty (Raising awareness about solving this issue)

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Jonathan Swift

Gulliver’s Travels - Satire about social classes and how people treat each other

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Daniel Dafoe

Robinson Crusoe - Satire about slavery

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Deism

Religion based on science - society operates on science, not “god making decisions”

God is an “all-seeing” eye

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Long Paliament

England was ruled by the people for 20+ years during James I rule because he was an absent monarch

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Parliament Sections

Two Houses: House of Lords (wealthy landowners - seats passed to children) and House of Commons (everyone else

Prime Minister - Oversees Parliament and discusses decisions with the King

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Petition of Right

Outlines the rights of Englishmen and limits the power of the king - Charles I threatened into signing it (reason why he starts the Civil War)

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Cavaliers (English Civil War)

Supporters of King Charles I

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Roundheads (English Civil War)

Supporters of Parliament (shaved their heads) - army led by Oliver Cromwell (known as New Model Army) - has many victories

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English Civil War

Cavaliers vs. Roundheads - Roundheads win

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Trial of Charles I

Charles is captured and put on trial in front of Parliament - his defense is Divine Right, but is convicted guilty because he signed the petition of right - executed (beheaded) and Oliver Cromwell is put into power

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Constitutional Monarchy

There is a monarch but no one is above the law. Established in England with laws to ensure the civil war doesn’t happen again

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Habeas Corpus (England)

All citizens get trial by jury, no cruel and unusual punishments

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Bill of Rights (England)

List of freedoms that all English citizens get

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Act of Union (England)

Creates a new country - Great Britain (England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales) - prevents a King from ruling two countries

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Salutary Neglect (America)

Colonies seen as a way to make money for England - left to rule themselves (similar to Long Parliament)

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French and Indian War

Wars between France and England over control of North American colonies - Great Britain wins (colonies help British Army fight - colonists get military experience)

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End of Salutary Neglect

After French and Indian war, Britain gets very involved with the colonies

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Navigation Acts

Known to the Colonists as the Intolerable Acts - laws that generate more money for Britain (taxes) - Britain feels justified bc they need money to cover war costs, and the Americans owe them because the war was to defend the Americans

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Sons of Liberty

Against British and taxes (Patriots)

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Tories

Supports the British Crown

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Lexington and Concord

British hears weapons are being collected so they go to confiscate - Paul Revere alerts minutemen - the “Spark” of the American revolution (“the shot heard round the world”) - Sons of Liberty begin to form a serious military

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Bunker Hill

For built by Patriots that was the first official battle of the American Revolution - British loses 800+ people due to their bad strategy (fights in lines, waits for officers before shooting) - patriots have to retreat when they run out of ammo but it’s a moral victory

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