Motivation

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54 Terms

1

Need

= something that is required for survival

ex. food, belonging

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2

Drive

= a physical or psychological state that propels animals to fulfill a need

ex. hunger

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3

Motivation

= a process that starts, guides, and continues a behavior until a goal is

achieved

  • motivated behaviors are intentional and goal-directed

ex. eating when we feel hunger

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4

Instinct Theory

a theory of motivation

= automatic, innate behaviors in response to a physical need

  • is an early, simplistic theory (Darwin + William James)

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5

Fixed-Action Patterns

= a behavior seen in an entire species that is automatically triggered by a stimulus (and followed through until completion)

ex. change in sunlight → bird migration

  • pretty much discredited (obsolete) except for some reflexes (ex. rooting reflex for infants)

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6

Drive Reduction Theory

a theory of motivation

= individuals engage in certain behaviors to satisfy a biological drive (to maintain homeostasis)

Need → Drive → Drive-Reducing Behavior →__Homeostasis__ achieved!

  • Employs Negative Reinforcement (do a behavior, eat, to reduce unpleasant feelings, hunger)

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7

Arousal Theory

a theory of motivation

= behaviors are driven to maintain certain levels of stimulation/arousal

  • diff people need diff levels of stimulation (couch potato vs. adrenaline junkie)

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8

Yerkes-Dodson Law

= there is a relationship between arousal levels and optimal performance on a task

  • the best level of arousal depends on the difficulty of the task

Easy task → requires high arousal/stimulation

ex. going for a run (repetitive, boring) → putting on music (increases attention/interest)

hard task → requires low arousal/stimulation

ex. driving (needs attention) → turning off music (incresaes concentration, decreases too much stimulation)

SO, this law implies that “we need some stress for optimal performance (but not too much)”

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9

Incentive Theory

a theory of motivation

= behaviors are driven by incentives

  • explains why we still do things even though they don’t satisfy biological needs

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10

Intrinsic Motivation

part of the Incentive Theory of motivation

= doing something for passion/curiosity/enjoyment (no reward)

  • contributes to a sense of accomplishment/autonomy

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11

Extrinsic Motivation

part of the Incentive Theory of motivation

= doing something to get a reward

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12

Overjustification

when extrinsic motivation overrides intrinsic motivation

ex. when you used to love reading, but school assigned it as homework, so it’s not fun anymore

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13

Humanistic Theory

(Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs)

a theory of motivation

= behaviors are driven by 5 different levels of needs

  • start at bottom (basic biological survival needs), then move up as those are fulfilled (social)

    • most fulfill bottom, reaching top is harder

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Physiological Needs

1st level of Maslow’s

  • food, water, warmth, rest

  • basic need

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15

Safety Needs

2nd level of Maslow’s

  • security

  • basic need

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16

Belongingness and Love

3rd level of Maslow’s

  • intimate relationships, friendships

    • psychological Need

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17

Esteem Needs

4th level of Maslow’s

  • prestige and feeling of accomplishment

  • Psychological Need

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18

Self-Actualization

5th level of Maslow’s

= living to your potential to achieve your goals and dreams (personal growth)

  • creative activities

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19

Self-Transcendence

6th* level of Maslow’s

= seeks to further a cause beyond the self and to experience connection beyonf the boundaries of the self

  • spiritual needs, cosmos

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20

Flow

= state of optimal experience

  • “in the zone”

  • don’t notice criticism/anxiety/time passing

  • activities that put people in this state are both highly challenging and also within the person’s abilities (high abilities)

    • dopamine levels increase in this state

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21

Cognitive Theories

= how we think affects how we behave

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22

Self Efficacy

a cognitive theory

= a person’s belief that their effort contributes to success

  • people who think they’ll accomplish something tend to work harder/persist at even difficult problems

  • “hard work pays off”

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23

Cognitive Consistency

a cognitive theory

= behaving in ways that match our beliefs

ex. President of SADD doesn’t drink and drive

  • opposite of cognitive dissoncance

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24

Cognitive Dissonance

a cognitive theory

= discrepancy in behavior and beliefs

ex. smoking even though they know smoking causes cancer

ex. eating meat even though like animals

  • causes anxiety

  • can be reduced by either changing behavior (stopping smoking/eating meat) OR by changing beliefs (justifying that you’re eating “veal” instead of “baby cow”)

    • so they match

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25

Self-Determination Theory

= there are 3 needs people must meet to be engaged in life and have persistence

  1. Competence = mastery

  2. Autonomy = Control over life

  3. Relatedness = interactions with others, care and be cared for

if 3 not met, then: aggression, unhappiness, mental disorders

  • associated with positive psychology and resilience

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26

Competence

1 of the 3 needs of self-determination theory

= mastery

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27

Autonomy

1 of the 3 needs of self-determination theory

= Control over life

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28

Relatedness

1 of the 3 needs of self-determination theory

= interactions with others, care and be cared for

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29

lateral hypothalamus

known as the hunger center,

  • stimulates feeding

(Electrical stimulation of the __ ____ _ results in ravenous eating behavior)

<p>known as the hunger center,</p><ul><li><p>stimulates feeding</p></li></ul><p>(Electrical stimulation of the __ ____ _ results in <strong>ravenous</strong> eating behavior)</p>
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30

ventromedial hypothalamus

brain structure integral to glucose regulation and appetite

  • tells you how satiated you are

<p>brain structure integral to glucose regulation and appetite</p><ul><li><p>tells you how satiated you are</p></li></ul>
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31

Leptin

a hormone secreted by fat cells to reduce appetite

Think: “Lessens” appetite

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32

Ghrelin

hormone that stimulates brain

“I’m hungry”

  • secreted by an empty stomach

  • works with the lateral hypothalamus

Think: “Growlin” stomach (cuz you’re hungry)

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33

obesity

= condition of having excess body fat resulting in overweight

  • could lead to diabetes type 2

  • hard on heart, knees, joints

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34

Weight Set

once you reach this point at a certain age, body will settle on an ideal set point

  • if you try to change it, homeostasis will work against you and try to revert back to ____

    • body bases this set point on fat cells, genetics, etc.

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35

cultural aspect of eating

an aspect of eating

  • “eating is involved in a lot of social events”

    • “let’s grab coffee/lunch”

  • also involved in coping (comfort foods/boredom)

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36

Excitement

1st stage of sexual response cycle

  • clitoris/penis swell

  • arousal increases steadily

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37

Plateau

2nd stage of sexual response cycle

  • breathing/pulse increase

  • secretion from vagina and penis

  • arousal steadies

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38

Orgasm

3rd stage of sexual response cycle

  • muscle contractions across the body

  • pleasurable feeling of sexual release

    • arousal peaks

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39

Resolution

4th stage of sexual response cycle

  • arousal levels return to normal

  • men have a longer refractory period

    • while women, after a short time, can go through cycle again

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40

CBT for Sexual Dysfunction

= cognitive-behavioral therapy

  • usually treats erectile dysfunction

  • involves education, sensate focus, stimulus control, sexual skills training, and cognitive restructuring (the core component of cognitive therapy: to challenge dysfunctional sexual beliefs)

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41

Kinsey’s studies on sexuality concluded that:

“sexual orientation is a continuum that varies with time”

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42

Buss’s sexual strategies theory

humans evolved complex short-term and long-term mating strategies

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43

sexual orientation

an enduring pattern of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions to men, women, or both sexes

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44

estrogen

  • hormone produced mainly by the ovaries

  • act as the principal female sex hormones

  • induces estrus in female mammals and secondary female sexual characteristics in humans

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45

testosterone

  • male sex hormone

  • stimulates the development of male reproductive organs,

  • and secondary sex characteristics, (such as beard, bone, and muscle growth)

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46

dopamine

neurotransmitter that plays a role as a “reward center”

  • memory, motivation, mood, attention

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47

oxytocin

  • traditionally associated with sex, breastfeeding, and childbirth,

  • BUT almost any form of social bonding or positive physical contact can trigger _____ release

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48

sexual schemas

blueprints for what we define as our role in:

  • sexual expression,

  • sexual orientation,

  • sexual behaviors,

  • sexual desires

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49

Need for achievement

= psychological drive to accomplish things

  • relates to the competence part of self-determination theory

  • can be either extrinsic or intrinsic

  • older siblings usually have a high level of this

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50

Need to Belong

= desire to be accepted by people you care about

  • related to the relatedness part of self-determination theory

too low = pathological/sociopath = don’t care about societal rules

  • ex. I’m going to set my neighbor’s house on fire! what fun!!

too high = pathological/sociopath = know it’s wrong, but go to extreme lengths to please others (and react strongly to being excluded)

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51

Need for Aggression

  • evolutionarily makes sense: needed to protect offspring/territory/food

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52

Hostile Aggression

= a type of aggression carried out for its own sake with the intention of causing harm

  • maladaptive coping

ex. road rage, punching walls

  • opposite of instrumental aggression

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53

Instrumental Aggression

= a type of aggression used in the process of achieving a goal other than the aggression itself

  • pre-meditated aggression and controlled (used for strategy as an instrument)

ex. being aggressive in the court room but not while playing with toddler

  • opposite of hostile aggression

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54

Need for Power

= need to have an impact on other people

ex. class president, captain, etc.

  • tends to be linked with instrumental aggression

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