Business Exam #2 Study Guide (Professor Scott)

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Things to consider when choosing a communication channel:

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106 Terms

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Things to consider when choosing a communication channel:

richness, control, and constraints

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Types of communication channels:

email, phone, video meeting, and face-to-face

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Richness

builds trust, rapport, and commitment

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Richness considers:

level of immediacy and number of cues

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Immediacy

how quickly someone responds/ gives feedback

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Social Cues

turn taking

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Verbal Cues

tone of voice

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Nonverbal Cues

gestures, facial expressions

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Control

degree to which communications can be planned/ recorded, allowing strategic message development

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Control Considers:

planning and permanence

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Planning

drafting, editing, and revision

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Permanence

extent to which the messages can be stored, retrieved, and shared

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Constraints

practical limitations of coordination and resources

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Coordination

effort and timing needed to allow all relevant people to participate

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Resources:

financial, space needed to meet, time, etc.

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Synchronous

real-time, immediate response, and turn-taking

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Asynchronous

participants pay attention and respond at time of their choosing

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Right purpose for email

few constraints and high control

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Few constraints:

low cost and little coordination

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High control

requires a lot of thinking and provides a permanent record

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Rarely use email for:

1. Sensitive/Emotional Messages

2. Facilitating Discussions

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Primary form of written business communication

email

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Ease of reading email

subject line, brief yet complete, expected actions, signature line, use attachments wisely

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Show respect for time by:

1. Selecting recipients carefully

2. Providing timelines and options

3. Careful use of priority flag

4. Letting others know when to expect longer response times

5. Avoiding email chains

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Protect privacy by

Being careful of sending sensitive, private, or confidential info

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Respond promptly

answer quickly as possible and if not, provide time to expect response

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Maintain professionalism by:

1. Avoiding indication that email was received as casual

2. Using standards of spelling/ grammar/ and punctation

3. Utilizing greetings/names

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Neutrality effect

recipients likely perceive positively intended messages as neutral

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Negativity effect

recipients likely perceive neutral intended messages as negative

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Flames

hostile intentions with profanity, insults, and obscenity to inflict harm

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Cyber Silence

nonresponsive

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Cyber Incivility

violation of respect/ consideration in an online environment based on workplace norms

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Active Incivility

1. Direct forms of disrespect

2. Being condescending or demeaning, saying something hurtful, using email to say things that you wouldn't say in person

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Passive Incivility

1. Indirect forms of disrespect

2. Using emails for time-sensitive messages, not acknowledging receipt of emails, not replying to emails, using email for discussions that are better suited for real-time

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Reinterpretation is:

1. Adjusting your initial perceptions by making more objective

2. More fact-based, and less personal judgments and evaluations

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Relaxation

releasing and overcoming anger and frustration so that you can make a more rational and less emotional response

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Defusing

avoiding escalation and removing tension to focus on work objectives

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Don'ts of instant message/text:

1. Do NOT send important info

2. Be careful about humor/ emojis/ abbreviations

3. Avoid using for scheduling

4. Do not send after hours, and turn alerts off

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Do's of instant messaging/ text:

1. Use an app that all can use

2. Stay positive/fun,

3. Evaluate meta of message

4. Ask simple brief questions

5. Identify yourself

6. Establish rules

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Guidelines for phone calls:

1. Schedule

2. Check Audio

3. Warm Greeting

4. Speak Pleasantly

5. Active Listening

6. Avoid multitasking

7. Take notes

8. Close with appreciation

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Interpersonal communication

1. Sending and receiving verbal and nonverbal messages

2. Exchange of simultaneous and mutual messages to share or negotiate

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Priming statements

trigger a mind-set that affects subsequent behavior

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Example of a priming statement

"let's figure out our options to create new customized tour options"

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Meaning

the thoughts and feelings that people intend to communicate to one another

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Encoding is:

process of converting meaning of words and nonverbal signals into messages

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Decoding is:

process of interpreting messages from others into meaning

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Credibility

1. Reputation of being trustworthy

2. degree at which others trust you

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Credibility is based on:

integrity, trust, reliability, authenticity, reputation, regard, and commitment

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Teams can focus on performance by:

1. Setting goals

2. Revisiting goals often to determine progress

3. Getting individuals to understand an d buy into the purpose

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Stages of high-performing teams

forming, storming, norming, performing

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Forming

1. Honeymoon stage in which team members gain acceptance and avoid conflict

2. 1-2 months

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Storming

1. Members open up about competing ideas of how to approach work

2. 2-3 months

3. Least productive, since members are attempting to make sense of uncertain

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Norming

1. Team arrives at work plan, including the roles, goals, and accountabilities

2. 4-5 months

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Performing

1. 6-7 months

2. Team operates efficiently toward accomplishing goals

3. Team has evolved to a level where they can transform disagreement and conflict into consensus for future action

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Team Culture

1. Shared commitment to collective values, norms, roles, responsibilities, and goals

2. Must be communicated properly by leader

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Team culture is developed in the _________ stage

norming

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Team Charter

1. Document that provides direction to the team in how it functions to meet shared objectives

2. Includes purpose, values, goals, team member roles, tasks, and ground rules

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Ground rules in team work:

1. Communication protocol

2. Meeting protocol

3. Decision making rules

4. Conflict Resolution

5. Feedback mechanisms

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Teams who meet often must:

1. Discuss goals and steps to achieving them

2. Stay on track with the agenda

3. Are mindful of others time commitments and responsibilities

4. Choosing a single member to polish work

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9-11 AM

most productive time of the day and is best for meetings

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When planning a meeting, you must share:

1. Purpose

2. Outcomes

3. Who and When?

4. Roles/responsibilities

5. An agenda & Materials

6. When & How to invite others, And solve logistical issues

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Logistical Issues

1. Reserving rooms

2. Getting equipment

3. Printing materials

4. Providing food (if needed)

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Psychological safety

ensure all voices are heard by making sure members feel safe to take risks and be vulnerable in front of one antoher

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How teams build trust:

1. Get to know one another

2. Holding an effective launch meeting

3. Commit to working together and separately

4. Setting up a deliverable schedule and evaluating performance regularly

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Groupthink

when groups verbally/ non verbally agree to ideas without gathering enough information or sharing opinions

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Collective Rationalization

group convinces themselves a solution is the best one, even when faced with conflicting information.

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Moral High-Ground

members assume they're morally correct and as a result dismiss competing ideas or alternate solutions

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Self-Censorship

members don't voice their opinions for the sake of harmony

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Illusion of Unanimity

no one speaks out against the majority view and, as a result, everyone assumes there is agreement

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Peer Pressure

majority of group members pressure or even penalize a member with dissenting views

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Illusion of Invulnerability

members are overly optimistic in their ideas and don't consider the risks or drawbacks of their ideas

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Complacency

group has experienced quite a few successes and begins to assume it will automatically make good decisions

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Mindguards

members who purposely filter information so there is no dissent or threat to the team leader

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Stereotyping

members see outsiders as morally inferior or less competent

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Cascades

initial ideas in a discussion excessively influence the ultimate decisions

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Embrace diversity by:

making sure everyone is heard, making is safe for members to express ideas, give members decision-making authority, sharing credit, giving useful feedback, and putting feedback into action

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Inherent Diversity

traits such as age, gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation

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Acquired Diversity

involves traits you acquire through experience, such as customer service experience, retail experience, or engineering experience

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2-D Diversity

having both inherent and acquired diversity

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Effective teams:

1. Solve problems and generate creative solutions

2. Provide positive feedback and evaluate performance

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Self-Disclosure

sharing information about yourself, such as goals, aspirations, views, values, and experiences

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Divergence

1. Considering as many solutions as possible

2. Working independently can increase the number of ideas and solutions generated

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Convergence

1. Evaluating the proposed ideas and solutions an narrowing them to a small set of feasible solutions to address the problem

2. Highly collaborative and generally involves refining the best ideas with contributions from all members

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Effective Teams:

feel a common sense of purpose and bond socially

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Coordination Meetings

Primary focus on discussing roles, goals, and accountabilities

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Problem-Solving Meetings

involve brainstorming about how to address and solve a particular work problem

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Facilitator

acts from a neutral position to get each person to participate in the conversation and ensure that each agenda item is properly discussed

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Principles of Managing Difficult Conversations:

1. Embrace them

2. Assume the best in others

3. Adopt a learning stance

4. Stay Calm

5. Overcome noise

6. Find common ground

7. Disagree diplomatically

8. Avoid exaggeration and either/or approaches

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How to address difficult conversations:

1. Declare intent

2. Listen to their story

3. Tell yours

4. Create a shared story

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Disagree well by:

validating others and using I statements

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Validating Others

shows recognition of feelings and perspectives

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I-Statements

sound more conciliatory and flexible allowing you to seem less blaming

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Brainstorming

a method of generating ideas for speech topics by free association of words and ideas

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Brainwriting

simultaneous written generation of ideas

write first, talk second

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Brainswarming

individually write contributions on sticky notes and place them on a graph

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Questioning

provoking new ways of thinking with questions

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Observing

carefully evaluating the behavior of others, especially customers

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Experimenting

trying out new things in methodical ways, which could even include thought experiments

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Networking

finding and testing ideas with a wide range of individuals

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Diversity

the presence of phycological, physical, and social differences in a given setting

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