AP Psych units 2-3(Psychology's History and Approaches and Research Methods)

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Psychology's History and Approaches and Research Methods

113 Terms

1

psychology

scientific study of behaviors and mental processes of humans and animals

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critical thinking

examines assumptions and the source, discerns hidden biases, evaluates evidence, assesses conclusions

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3

two early themes of prescientific psychology

mind-body existence debate and nature vs nurture

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4

what did socrates and plato believe?

mind separate from body (continues after death), knowledge is innate → nature

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5

What did Aristotle believe?

knowledge isn’t preexisting, it grows with experience → nurture

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6

empiricism

knowledge comes from experience; observation, and experimentation enable scientific knowledge

observation and experimentation are essential for gaining scientific knowledge through direct experience

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7

Rene Descartes

nature AND nurture, mind/body exist separately but communicate thru “nerves”, combines philosophy and psychology (dissected animals)

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8

Francis Bacon

importance= common sense and experimenting → using experiments to challenge superstitions

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9

John Locke

everyone born “blank slate”, nurture argument → we are who we are through experiences

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10

phrenology

late 1800s, read personality based on head bumps, early precursor to neuroscience, Franz Joseph Gall

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11

Father of Psychology

Wilhelm Wundt

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12

What did Wilhelm Wundt do

1st psychological lab in germany, 1st psychological experiment (measuring perception of sound), beginning of 1st field structuralism through introspection

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13

4 “old schools”

structuralism

functionalism

gestalt

psychoanalytic

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14

who founded structuralism

Wilhelm Wundt

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15

structuralism

breaking consciousness into parts and naming them *introspection

problem: relies on smart, verbal ppl to say feelings

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16

introspection

process of looking inward to observe one’s own psychological processes

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17

who founded functionalism?

William James

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18

functionalism

consciousness is always changing so hard to break into parts, should look functions of our consciousness

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19

gestalt

whole is different than sum of parts, look at whole and organizational processes of brain

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20

who founded psychoanalytic perspective?

sigmund freud

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21

psychoanalysis

emotional problems and abnormal behavior is a result of unconscious conflicts, emphasis on childhood, unconscious thoughts, defense mechanism, talk therapy, dream analysis

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22

Mary whiton calkins

student of William James, took classes at harvard but couldn’t get degree, American Psychological Associations 1st female president

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23

Margaret Floy Washburn

1st woman to earn PhD in Psych

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24

Psychodynamic perspective

The theory that one’s past traumas and conflicts or past experiences influence their behavior/mental processes

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25

psychodynamic people-thumb

Carl Jung, Alfred Alder, Erik Erikson

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26

behaviorist perspective- middle

the idea that people accumulate experiences and behaviors through learning and through associations or rewards/punishments.

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27

humanistic perspective- ring

The idea that all people are good and unique individuals who strive to be the best version of themselves

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28

cognitive perspective- pointer

The idea that someone’s mental processes and internal feelings affect the way they think, communicate, and behave

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29

biological perspective

The theory that some of one’s behavioral characteristics/mental processes are in their DNA and have been passed down through the genepool

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30

evolutionary perspective- extra

The theory that someone’s behaviors/mental processes were once beneficial to survival and are still present in their genes today because they helped their ancestors survive

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31

socio-cultural perspective- palm

The theory that one’s environment and culture around them heavily influences one’s behavior/mental processes.

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32

basic research vs applied research

basic: increase scientific knowledge (7 perspectives)

applied: solve practical problems + assist people (subfields)

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33

industrial organization subfield

improve life in workplace

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34

human factors subfield

improve life in general

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35

counseling- think mr kittridge

help clients address emotional, social, and physical stressors

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36

clinical psychology

therapist, study of mental disorders

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37

psychiatry

med school, can prescribe meds

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38

confirmation bias- think hair brands

we look for info that supports our beliefs and ignore info that refutes it

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39

anecdotal evidence

Evidence based on personal experiences or observations, lacking scientific testing

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40

empirical evidence

Evidence obtained through direct observation, measurement, or experimentation. based on data not opinions

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41

hindsight bias (I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)

tendency to believe one would have foreseen it after learning an outcome

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42

overconfidence

tendency to think we know more than we do

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43

perceiving order in random events- think coin toss

tendency to think order isn’t random in events even though it is

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44

inductive reasoning

start w/ observing/research, then come up with theory

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45

deductive reasoning

start w/ theory, then do research

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46

theory

explanation using evidence and principles that organize observations

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47

hypothesis

testable prediction that uses operational definitions of each variable so that you can test the theory

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48

operational definition- think examples in class

(distinguishes hypothesis from theory) → statement of exact procedures in research→ makes it testable and shows what they’re measuring

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49

case study

descriptive technique in which one individual/group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles *atypical individual cases→misleading

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50

naturalistic observation

descriptive technique of observing + recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate/control the situation

studying ppl in natural environments

doesn’t explain behavior, describes it

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51

survey

obtaining self-reported attitudes/nehaviors of particular group, usually by questioning or random sample of group

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52

wording effect

changes of wording of questions → major effects

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53

sampling bias

flawed sampling process that produces unrepresentative sample

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54

population

all in group being studied from which samples may be drawn

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55

random sample

sample fairly represents a population bc each member has equal chance of inclusion

*reduces chance of bias or confounding

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56

validity

credibility

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57

things needed in order to not have interferences with experiment

standardization- everyone has same experience, random assignment, control of researcher bias, demand characteristics/participant bias, and confounding variables

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58

researcher bias

tendency for researchers to unknowingly influence results of experiment

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Participant bias (demand characteristics)

subjects know they are being watched or recognize what experimenter is investigating

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60

target population

who you want to study

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61

self selected sampling

(volunteer)- can be biased because types of people not representative of everyone

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62

opportunity sampling

convenience- can have underlying bias bc of location and people there

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63

purposive

want specific group you can’t get with random

biased because not entirely representative of population bc not random

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64

stratified

Radom samples of multiple groups

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65

snowball

one person recruits ppl, they recruit others

biased bc not much variation

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66

sampling

when researchers select a group to study

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67

assignment

researchers decide which of their participants will be in each condition

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68

descriptive research methods purpose

observe and record behavior

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69

types of descriptive research methods

Observations, Interviews, Survey, Case Studies

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70

how are descriptive research methods conducted?

case studies, naturalistic observations, surveys (nothing is manipulated)

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71

naturalistic observations

observing ppl in natural only

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72

laboratory observations- think chimps/kids

observations in highly controlled environments, each participant has highly similar experience (downside- not like real life)

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73

reactivity

people know they’re in study so change behavior

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74

covert observations- think “co-cover”

hidden/secret, ppl don’t know they’re being observed (benefit- no reactivity)

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75

overt observations- think “o-open”

ppl know they’re being observed

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76

participant observations- think mr Clarke

affects research could get more info

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77

nonparticipant observations- think mr Woodward

doesn’t affect research, might not get as much info

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78

unstructured interviews

no script, each is different

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79

structured interviews

don’t deviate from script

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80

semi-structured interviews- think dress up

w/ script but ask follow up ?s

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81

focus groups

sparks ideas, efficient’ biased, can change answer to fit group

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82

problems with interviews

reactivity, measuring self reports info, not behavior

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83

longitudinal research

follow same group over time

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84

cross-sectional research

comparisons @ single point in time- not same participants but more efficient

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85

how can you do cause→effect

manipulate IV and have random assignment

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86

field experiment

research method that uses some controlled elements of traditional lab experiments, but takes place in natural, real-world settings

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87

quasi experiment

manipulate IV, NO random assignment

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88

correlational studies- ex) video games/aggressive thinking

measuring relationship between 2 variables

no manipulated variable, no cause/effect, no random assignment

data comes from surveys, psychological tests, archival records, quasi experiments

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89

positive correlation- ex) # of years in school/income

direct relationship → 2 variables increase or decrease together

slope of line is positive

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90

negative correlation- ex) more physical activity, lower blood pressure

inverse relationship- one increases, other decreases

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91

correlational coefficient

statistical measure of relationship, revealing how closely 2 things vary together/how one predicts the other

between -1 and 1

closer to -1 or 1 → stronger, closer to 0 → weaker

measures strength and direction (+ or -)of relationship

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92

why is correlation not causation?

no variable manipulated, don’t know which variable causes other (bidirectional ambiguity), 3rd variable (confounding) problem, illusory correlations

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93

illusory correlations- ex) lucky pencil

perceive there to be relationship but there is not

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94

central tendency

mode, mean, median

identifying estimated “center” of distribution of data

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95

mean

average of data set

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96

median

exact middle of data set

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97

mode

most occurring value in data set

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98

variation

range and sd

allows understanding of variation between data points

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99

range

difference between highest value and lowest

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100

standard deviation

indicates avg. distance from mean for set of scores, tells where each value point is in terms of the mean

higher → less similar score, father from mean

lower—> more similar, closer to mean

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