Biological Macromolecules

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What are the four types of carbon-based macromolecules? How do they differ?

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What are the four types of carbon-based macromolecules? How do they differ?

Lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids unique structure and function

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Monomers

The small units or building blocks for polymers/macromolecules

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Macromolecule: carbohydrate Monomer name: ? Functions: ? Example:

Sugar Stores energy and structural material Potato

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Macromolecule: Lipid Monomer name: Functions: Example:

Fatty acid Store energy + form membrane + steroids Fat cells

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Macromolecule: Proteins Monomer: Function: Example:

Amino acid Enzymes, structural material, peptides Hair

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Macromolecule: Nucleic acids Monomer: Functions: Example:

Nucleotide Store genetic info DNA

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Polymers

Organic molecules that are composed of chains of subunits (monomers)

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What is important about polymers?

It dictates how everything in the human body is built

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How are organic polymers synthesized?

By bonding together monomers with special types of covalent bonds

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Condensation reaction

Also known as dehydration synthesis •process of joining monomers to monomers or monomer to polymers or polymers to polymers •each reaction yields a single molecule of water (water is generated but at the same time lost)

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How are polymers broken down?

By breaking the covalent bonds that link the monomers

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Hydrolysis reaction

The breakdown process of polymers •each reaction used a single molecule water to split a large molecule into monomeric subunits •gains a water in the new chemical formula

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Hydrophobic

Water fearing (usually nonpolar)

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Hydrophilic

Attracted to water (usually polar)

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Lipid

Carbon-containing biological molecules that is largely nonpolar and hydrophobic

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What are lipids mostly made up of?

Hydrocarbons

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Hydrocarbons

Long chains of carbon covalently bonded with hydrogen atoms filling their valence shells (sometimes oxygen as well)

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What are the building blocks of lipids?

Fatty acids

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What is fatty acid made up of?

Hydrocarbon chain that is bonded to a carboxylic acid (COOH) functional group

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How many carbon atoms do fatty acids have? How are they synthesized?

Even number of carbon atoms •joining of two carbon acetyl groups

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Saturation

How many carbon-valence positions are filled with hydrogen atoms

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Unsaturated fatty acids and bonds

Possess one or more double covalent bonds between carbon atoms •this produces a kink/bend = prevents rotation, limits flexibility and changes the overall shape of fatty acid

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What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats at room temp?

Saturated fats are able to make many connections with its carbon bonds •these connections squeeze against one another and it takes a lot of energy to break them =this makes saturated fats solid at room temp Unsaturated fats have a kink which does not allow the carbon atoms to be packed together tightly •it takes less energy to break these bonds =unsaturated fat is a liquid at room temp

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Examples of saturated fatty acids

Meat, dairy, butter, muscle fat (lard) •stearic acid, arachidic, palmatic

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Examples of unsaturated fatty acids

Mono-unsaturated: olive oil, canola oil, avocados, 1 C=C bond

Poly-unsaturated: corn oil, fatty fish multi C=C bonds •oleic acid, erucic acid

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Examples of polyunsaturated fatty acids

Arachidonic, linoleic, linolenic

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What shape does saturated fatty acids take?

Long linear shape

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cis unsaturated fatty acid

hydrogen atoms are nearly always on the same side of the two carbon atoms that are double bonded, low melting point, oils/liquids

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Cis unsaturated fatty acid shape

A bent or V shape

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Poly unsaturated fatty acid shape

Usually takes in a U shape (many kinks)

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trans fats shape and other name

fatty acids with hydrogens on opposite sides of the double bond •partially hydrogenated oils (bad for us)

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How is trans fatty acids made? And history?

When cooking it is easy when oils are in there solid form (such as butter with cookies) •not possible with saturated fast bc of its properties •saturated fat is expensive (animals) and hard to use at times if it's liquid -cheaper too produce plant based oils Crisco= taking plant based oils and bubbling hydrogen gas through the oil •hydrogenate the fat, not fully but partially saturated -causes hydrocarbon chain to loose it's kinks; rearranges into linear shape

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Hydrogenate

To add hydrogen to unsaturated fats

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Is trans fats bad?

Our bodies transport it differently, it caused artherosclerosis and other heart problems

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Four types of lipids found in cells, how do they differ?

Fats (triglycerides) Phospholipids Steroids Waxes •differ in shape and function, how they bring fatty acids together

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What is the monomer of lipids?

Fatty acids

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What is the polymer fatty acids?

lipids

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How do plants use wax?

They have an outer layer to prevent water from escaping •keeps them hydrated

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Fats other name

Triglycerides

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Parts of a triglyceride

1 glycerol (3 carbon molecule with hydrogen and hydroxyl groups) and 3 fatty acids/hydrocarbon chain (monomers)

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How are triglycerides formed?

Created through condensation reactions •carboxylic acid group (COOH) of fatty acid joins the hydroxyl groups (3; OH) of glycerol

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What type of covalent bonds are formed between fatty acids and glycerol?

Ester linkages

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What is produced when 3 fatty acids combine with glycerol?

A lipid and 3 water molecules

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Why are fats a good source of energy?

Metabolism creates energy by breaking covalent bonds, there are many covalent bonds in a fatty acid hydrocarbon chain

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What do phospholipids consist of?

2 fatty acid chain connected to glycerol connected to a phosphate group (PO4^3-)

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How are phospholipids made?

Condensation reaction (same as triglycerides)

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What is so special about the phosphate group in a phospholipid

It is a polar molecule and the fatty acids are nonpolar This creates an amphipathic chemistry

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ampipathic

A molecule that has a both a hydrophilic (polar) region and a hydrophobic (nonpolar) region

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What is the "head" of a phospholipid?

The polar side of the molecule (hydrophilic) •phosphate group =causes it to interact with water

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What is the tail of a phospholipid?

Non-polar side (hydrophobic) •made of fatty acids (hydrocarbon chains) =repels water

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What is the primary function of phospholipids?

To form membranes

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What are the purpose of membranes?

To create boundaries between the inside of the cell (organelles) and outside of the cell

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What happens when a phospholipid is placed in water?

The polar head interacts with water while the nonpolar tail repels water •they immediately arrange themselves into a double layer, with the heads on the outside (interacting with water) while the tails are insulated on the inside =creates a bilayer membrane

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Steroids structure

Unique lipids, made up of four ring structure

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How are the rings of steroids made?

Cyclizing a special triterpenoid hydrocarbon (fatty acid) called squalene

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How are the rings of steroids made (easy def)?

Take fatty acids, stringing together into longer chains and lastly folding them up into ring based structures

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Precursor to steroid?

Squalene, made up of many difft fatty acids stringed together

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Examples of steroids

cholesterol, estrogen, testosterone, oestrone, cholic acid, corticotestosterone

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How are steroids signaling molecules?

They act like hormones and tell your body what to do

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Carbohydrates structure (basic)

Hydrated hydrocarbons Because it's structure is simply carbon bonded to water multiple times •(CH2O)n

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Monosaccharide

Repeating chains of hydrated carbons •simple sugars •building blocks of carbohydrates (monomers)

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Polysaccharide

Another name for carbohydrate •polymer of carbs (multiple monomers)

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How do carbs interact with water?

Due to the presence of oxygen/water (which is more electronegative) it causes the molecule to become polar •carbs are hydrophilic/will dissolve in water

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What are the 3 different criteria used to identify simple sugars?

Number of carbon atoms, location of carbonyl group, and spatial arrangement of their atoms

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Sugar with three carbon atoms

Triose sugar

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Sugar with 5 carbon atoms

pentose sugar

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Sugars with 6 carbon atoms

Hexose sugar

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What does the suffix -ose mean?

Carbohydrate

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Carbonyl group

C=O Specific functional group; carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom

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Ketone group

carbon double bonded to an oxygen (carbonyl group) with a bond to carbon on either side (in middle of monosaccharide) C | C = O | C

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Ketose sugars

When the carbonyl group is found in the middle of the carbon chain and forms a ketone group

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Aldehyde group

Forms when the carbonyl group is located at the terminal end of the carbon chain and bonds with a hydrogen H-C=O

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Aldose sugars

When the carbonyl group is located at the terminal end of monosaccharide and forms an aldehyde group

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What does the functional group placement in sugars dictate?

It dictates the type of chemistry the monosaccharide can participate in (structure relates to function)

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Which compound is especially important in terms of the spatial arrangement of carbohydrate atoms?

Hydroxyl (OH-) group Defines the type of simple sugar it is

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Glucose function and examples

Primary brain food and is the basic part of all sugars •starches, sucrose, artificial sweeteners

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Galactose function and examples (comparing to glucose)

Brain can't eat this so it has to convert it into glucose •part of milk sugar so some can't digest is lactose intolerant

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Isomers

Compounds with the same formula but different structures •ex: glucose v galactose

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What happens when a monosaccharide such as glucose is dissolved in water or in solid form?

The covalent bonds will have the ability to rotate around one another, which allows glucose to rotate into a six-members ring structure

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Why does the ring structure form when glucose dissolves in water?

It is more stable in that structure than in linear form

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What are the six-members rings called?

Hemiacetals

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What is the final step to from the ring structure of glucose? What does it produce?

Oxygen atoms becomes bonded to a carbon atom to close off the ring The ring now has a carbon point bonded to one hydrogen atom and one hydroxyl group •two different ways these two groups can be structured

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What are the two ways the carbon ring can form?

The hydroxyl group can be placed either down in orientation (other side of carbon 6) or up in orientation (same side of carbon 6)

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C-OH in a down orientation called...

Alpha glucose

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