# PHYSICS IGCSE EDEXCEL ALL PAPER 1

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## Tags and Description

### 92 Terms

1

speed

distance/time

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2

acceleration

change in velocity/time taken

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3

speed in a distance time graph

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4

acceleration in a velocity time graph

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5

distance in a velocity time graph

area

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6

weight

mass x gravitational field strength

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7

scalar

magnitude only

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8

vector

magnitude and direction

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9

friction

force that opposes motion, present if an objet is in motion

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10

stopping distance

thinking distance + braking distance

• faster speed increases both

• larger mass increases braking distance

• slower reaction time increases thinking distance

• increased grip decreased braking distance

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11

terminal velocity

weight is equal to drag meaning resultant force is zero, therefore acceleration is 0

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12

hooke’s law

extension of a helical spring is direction proportional to the applied force

• there is an elastic limit where elastic behaviour turns into plastic behaviour

• elastic behaviour: if the applied force is removed, the object will return back to its original shape

• plastic behaviour: if the applied force is removed, the object will not return back to its original shape, therefore it is deformed

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13

newton’s laws of motion

1. if resultant force on an object = 0, it will remain at its current velocity (incl. 0 – standing still)

• inertia means no resultant force/ object will continue doing what it’s doing

• zero acceleration

2. object accelerates in the direction of the resultant force

• speed can remain constant but direction changes, meaning a changed velocity

3. if object A exerts a force on object B, then object B exerts an equal and opposite force on object A

• requirements: 1) same type of force, 2) acts on two different objects

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14

moments

• moment = force x perpendicular distance from pivot

• newton metres = newtons x metres

• principle of moments: sum of clockwise moments equals sum of anticlockwise moments in order for a lever to be in equilibrium

• in order for lever to be in equilibrium, f1x = f2y

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15

insulation

to stop the flow of electricity

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16

conduction

to allow the flow of electricity

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17

double insulation

covering a metal object in plastic, therefore it acts as an insulator

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18

earthing

carries excess current into the earth through a metal rod put into earth

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19

circuit breakers

switch opens, therefore breaking the circuit if too much current is flowing through

• benefit: reusable

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20

mains electricity

230V

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21

fuse

melts if current gets too high therefore breaking the circuit

• drawback: one time use; after it melts it must be replaced

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22

ammeter

measures current, must be placed in series

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23

voltmeter

measures voltage, must be placed in parallel around the component under test

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a.c. supply

current is constantly changing direction

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d.c. supply

current keeps flowing in the same direction

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26

voltage

current x resistance

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27

metal filament lamp

as temperature increases, resistance increases

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28

wire

current through a wire is proportional to voltage

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29

diode

current in a diode only flows through in one direction

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30

LEDs

emit light when current flows through them in the forward direction

• used in remote controls, digital clocks, traffic lights

• don’t have a filament that can burn out

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31

LDRs

changes resistance depending on how much light falls on it

• in bright light, resistance decreases

• in darkness, resistance increases

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thermistors

temperature-dependent resistor

• in hot conditions, resistance decreases

• in cool conditions, resistance increases

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33

series circuits

• in series, voltage is split between components

• E.g. power source is 6V, both lightbulbs have 3V (assuming they have the same resistance)

• the current is the same everywhere in a series circuit

• benefit: more simple (less wires required)

• negative: components have a greater resistance

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parallel circuits

• in parallel, voltage is equal in components

• E.g. power source is 6V, both lightbulbs have 6V (assuming they have the same resistance)

• at a junction, current is conserved

• current is split between branches in a parallel circuit

• benefit: if one component breaks, the others will continue running

• negative: while the bulbs may be brighter, the power source would drain faster

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35

current

• current = charge/time

• definition: rate of flow of charge

• current is conserved at a junction

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36

voltage

• voltage = energy/charge

• definition: energy transferred per charge

• 1 volt = 1 joule/coulomb

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transverse waves

vibrations perpendicular to energy transfer

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38

longitudinal waves

vibrations parallel to energy transfer

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39

wave speed

λ x frequency

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40

frequency

1/time

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41

doppler effect

• wavefronts are further apart, therefore meaning a longer wavelength

• wavelength is inversely proportional to frequency

• longer wavelength means a lower frequency, meaning a lower pitch

• wave speed is constant

• V = λf, if wavelength is longer so frequency must be lower to maintain the same wave speed

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refraction

when a wave passes a boundary between two different density media, it changes speed and sometimes direction too

• from more to less optically dense, wave goes away from the normal

• from less to more optically dense, wave goes towards the normal

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electromagnetic spectrum

radio waves → microwaves → infrared → visible light → ultraviolet → x-rays → gamma rays (increasing f, decreasing λ)

microwaves -> cell phones, however heats internal tissues

infrared -> cooking food, night vision/thermal imaging, however can cause skin burns

visible light -> photography

ultraviolet -> testing fake bank notes, sterilisation, however may cause skin cancer by the mutation of skin cells

x-rays -> view internal structure of our bodies, however may cause cancer by the mutation of cells

gamma rays -> sterilise medical equipment, however may cause cancer by the mutation of cells

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graphical method

1. take multiple incidences and refractions,

2. plot a graph of sin (i) against sin (r)

3. draw a straight line of best fit (should be directly proportional)

5. to find n, gradient = diff in y/ diff in x

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critical angle

• if incidence is greater than C, all rays will be totally internally reflected

• MUST take place at a boundary from a substance that is more optically dense to a substance that is less optically dense

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46

total internal reflection

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47

sound waves

• humans can only hear sound waves from 20 – 20,000 Hz

• sound waves are longitudinal waves

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48

energy stores

kinetic, thermal, chemical, gravitational potential, elastic potential, electrostatic, magnetic, nuclear

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49

principle of conservation of energy

energy can be stored, transferred between stores or dissipated - but it can never be created or destroyed

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50

efficiency

useful/total x 100

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51

sankey diagrams

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• thermal radiation is infrared radiation consisting of plenty of EM waves

• an object that is hotter than its surroundings emits more radiation than it absorbs

• an object that is cooler than its surroundings absorbs more radiation than it emits

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53

conduction energy transfer

• mainly in solids

• vibrating particles transfer energy from their kinetic energy store to the kinetic energy store of neighbouring particles

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54

convection energy transfer

• in liquids and gases

• more energetic particles move from a hotter region to a cooler region, transferring energy as they do

• convection currents are all about changes in density

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colours in energy transfer

black → good absorber, bad reflector

white → good reflector, bad absorber

matte → good absorber

shiny → good reflector

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56

work done

force x distance moved

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57

kinetic energy store

KE = ½ x mass x speed²

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58

density

mass/volume

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pressure

force/area

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60

absolute zero

-273 degrees celsius

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61

particle collision theory

colliding gas particles create pressure

• as gas particles move, they randomly collide into each other

• they exert a force and their momentum and direction change

• pressure created depends on speed and frequency

• increasing temperature increases pressure

• increasing volume decreases pressure

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62

magnetic fields

region where magnetic materials experience a force

• magnetic field lines show size and direction of magnetic fields, always from north to south

1. north to south

2. at least 3 lines

3. field lines closer at poles

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63

magnetic materials

material that will turn into a magnet if it is brought into a magnetic field

1. iron

2. cobalt

3. nickel

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64

magnetically hard

permanently magnetised, difficult to magnetise and demagnetise

• e.g. steel

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magnetically soft

temporarily magnetised, easy to magnetise and demagnetise

• e.g. iron

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uniform field

1. evenly spaced

2. parallel

3. arrow from north to south

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magnetic induction

when a magnetic material is brought into a magnetic field, it becomes a magnet (gets magnetised)

• if brought to north pole, the side closest to the north pole will become the south pole

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iron filings

1. place a white piece of paper over a bar magnet

2. sprinkle iron filings on top

3. gently tap the paper until magnetic field lines appear

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compass

1. place multiple needle compasses around a bar magnet

2. needle of compass will align with the magnetic field

3. this will show the direction of the magnetic field

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70

solenoid

when current flows through a current-carrying wire, it produces a magnetic field

1. magnetic field inside a current-carrying solenoid is uniform and strong

2. outside the bar, the field is one just like a magnet

3. ends of solenoid act as the north and south poles

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71

fleming’s left hand rule

1. current flowing through a wire produces a magnetic field

2. this magnetic field interacts with the magnetic field of the permanent magnet

3. this produces a force

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72

motor effect

loudspeakers

• current-carrying wire produces magnetic field

• A.C. current, meaning a current that changes direction continuously

• this magnetic field interacts with the magnetic field of a permanent magnet

• this produces a force -> every time the direction of the current changes, the direction of the force changes as well

• frequency of vibration correlates to the frequency of sound

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factors that speed up a D.C. electric motor

1. more current

2. more turns in the coil

3. stronger magnetic field

4. soft iron core in the coil

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74

electromagnetic induction

the creation of a voltage in a wire which is experiencing a change in magnetic field

• dynamo effect → using electromagnetic induction to generate electricity using energy from kinetic energy stores

• to get a bigger voltage, increase

1. strength of magnet

2. number of turns on coil

3. speed of movement

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75

structure of an atom

• neutron number = mass - proton

• isotopes: same proton number but different number of neutrons

• proton

• mass 1

• charge +1

• neutron

• mass 1

• charge 0

• electron

• mass 1/1000

• charge -1

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• helium nucleus

• lowly penetrating

• highly ionising

• emitting an alpha particle causes proton number to decrease by 2, mass number decreases by 4

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• electron

• moderately penetrating

• moderately ionising

• emitting a beta particle causes proton number to increase by 1, mass number stays the same

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• electromagnetic wave

• no mass, just energy

• highly penetrating

• lowly ionising

• always happens after an alpha or beta decay

• emitting gamma rays have no effect on the proton and mass number

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• emitting a neutron causes proton number to stay the same, mass number decrease by 1

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80

1. measure background radiation using a GM detector (Bq)

2. measure Bq reading from a known distance (control) to radioactive source

4. repeat 3 times and average concordant results, remove anomalies

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81

half-life

time taken for half of the radioactive nuclei to decay

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nuclear fission

splitting of a large parent nucleus into smaller daughter nuclei and neutrons which collide with other nuclei, causing a chain reaction

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nuclear fusion

two small nuclei collide and fuse to create a larger, heavier nucleus

• conditions → extremely high temperature (high kinetic energy) and pressure (to overcome electrostatic repulsion of like charges)

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nuclear reactors

• moderator (usually graphite or water) slows down neutrons

• control rods (usually boron) limit rate of fission by absorbing excess neutrons

• shielding (usually thick concrete) used to absorb ionising radiation

• substance (usually CO2) pumped around to transfer energy to water in the heat exchanger

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1. medical tracers

• radioactive source has to have a short half-life

2. sterilisation

• of food and equipment

3. treating cancer

• ionising radiation can kill or damage cells and tissues

4. industrial tracers and thickness gauges

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1. ionising radiation can damage cells and tissues

• beta and gamma radiation can penetrate the skin and soft tissues

• radiation collides with molecules in cells causing ionisation which damages or destroys molecules

3. contamination

• radioactive particles getting onto objects

• use gloves and tongs when handling sources

4. disposal

• radioactive sources are difficult to dispose of

• seal into glass blocks which are then sealed in metal canisters and buried underground

• site must be geologically stable

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87

universe

large collection of billions of galaxies

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galaxy

large collection of stars

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89

orbits

• planets orbit the sun

• comets orbit the sun

• asteroids orbit the sun

• moons orbit planets

elliptical orbit (elongated) → comets

circular orbit → planets

gravitational field strength affected by:

1. mass → higher mass higher g

2. distance → less distance higher g

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90

orbital speed

2 x π x orbital radius/time period

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91

stellar evolution

stars much bigger than the sun: nebula → protostar → main sequence star → red supergiant → supernova → neutron star or black hole

stars around the same size as the sun: nebula → protostar → main sequence star → red giant → white dwarf

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92

star colour

(hottest) blue → white → yellow → orange → red (coolest)

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