Busmhr Exam 1

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What is organizational behavior?

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187 Terms

1

What is organizational behavior?

An academic discipline focused on understanding and managing people at work

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2

How does organization behavior attempt to overcome the pitfalls of relying on common sense?

By relying on a systematic science based approach

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3

What is a systematic science based approach based on?

Contingency perspective

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4

What is a contingency perspective?

There's no one best way to manage people, teams, or organizations. The best or most effective course of action depends on the situation

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5

What is the goal of organizational behavior?

To be able to understand, explain, predict, and control/shape human behavior. Can see and measure it

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6

What are the aspects of organizational behavior?

-The study of the people and attitudes that people exhibit in organizations -multiple levels: individual, group/team, organization -varying "depth" -- behaviors, attitudes, values -all different kind of organizations

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7

What is the goal of human resource management?

To understand how to effectively maximize the value of the employee

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8

What are the aspects of human resource management?

The study of the policies, practices, and systems that influence employees' behavior, attitudes, and performance

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9

What is the economist perspective for HR?

Employees = Expense

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10

What is the HRM perspective for HR?

Employees = Value

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11

What is phsychology?

Seeks to measure, explain, and change behavior

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12

What is social psychology?

Focuses on the influence of people on one another

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13

What is sociology

Studies people in groups, in relation to their fellow human beings

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14

What is anthropology?

Studies societies to learn about human beings and their activities

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15

What is political science?

Studies behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment

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16

What is an example of organizational behavior?

Why do people sit where

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17

What is the philosophy for OBHR?

The power of the people (creating positive work culture and environment to make a company successful)

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18

What are the three sub-aspects of organizational behavior?

Behaviors, attitudes, and values

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19

Who gets the most training at Walt Disney World?

Janitors

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20

What company says that the people are the inventory of their company?

Microsoft --Bill Gates

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21

What is group behavior changes?

"a person is smart, people are dumb"

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22

What are the three levels in organizational behavior at work?

Individual, group/team, organization

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23

What relates to human interactions and include both interpersonal skills and personal attributes and are among the most values skill by employers? (the #1 trait employers are looking for)

Soft skills

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24

What are examples of personal attributes?

Attitude, personality, leadership, teamwork

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25

What are examples of interpersonal skills?

Active listening, positive attitudes, and effective communication

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26

What are the top qualities employers look for in employees?

Problem solving skills, teamwork, written communication, leadership, and strong work ethic

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27

What criteria determine which applicant is hired?

Technical skills- nuts and bolts of doing a job and the ability to get the job done Based on job or function specific knowledge

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28

What criteria determines which employees is promoted?

Ability to manage people, strong team skills, and the ability to build and manage relationships

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29

Why are ethics important?

-employees are confronted with ethical challenges throughout their careers -unethical behavior can damage relationships making it hard to conduct business -unethical behavior reduces cooperation, loyalty, and performance -the legal system can't always be relied on to assure work conduct that's ethical

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30

What is an ethical dilemma?

Situations with 2 choices either of which resolves the situation in an ethically acceptable and no clear ethical resolution arises -not always a pure choice between right and wrong -places people in an uncomfy position

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31

What is a cause of unethical behavior?

Ill-conceived goals

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32

What are ill-conceived goals?

We set goals and incentives to promote a desired behavior, but they encourage a negative one

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33

What is an example of an ill-conceived goal?

The pressure to increase/maximize billable hours in accounting, consulting, and law firms which leads to unconscious padding

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34

What is the remedy to ill-conceived goals?

Brainstorm unintended consequences when devising goals and incentives. Consider alternative goals that may be more important to reward

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35

What can you do when dealing with unethical behavior?

-treat it as business -accept that confronting ethical concerns is part of your job -challenge the rationale -use your lack of seniority or status as an asset -consider and explain the long term consequences -focus on solutions, not just complains

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36

What are the 3 standards for identifying ethical practices?

Greatest good for greatest number, respect for basic human rights, and fair and equitable

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37

What are the 3 steps to solve problems when applying org behavior?

  1. Define the problem

  2. Identify OB concepts to solve the problem (why or who does this cause a problem?)

  3. Make recommendations and take action

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38

What are person factors?

Characteristics that give individuals their unique identities

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39

What are situation factors?

Elements outside us that influence what we do, the way we do it, and the ultimate results of our actions

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40

What often results from the interaction of these independent factors?

Individual behavior

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41

What is the person-situation distinction?

Understanding the interplay between person and situation factors to be effective

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42

What should be considered when selecting the most effective solution?

Selection criteria, consequences, choice process, and necessary resources

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43

What is selection critieria?

Effects bottom line profits, its impact on others, its impact on the reputation with customers or the community

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44

What are consequences?

Trade offs between who wins and loses and it's ideal versus practical options

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45

Who does the choice processes involve?

Individual, team, and organization

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46

What are the two types of capital in human resource management?

Type of Human Capital and Behavior of Human Capital

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47

What is type of human capital?

Training, experience, judgement, intelligence, relationships, and insight

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48

What is behavior of human capital?

Motivation and effort

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49

What do type and behavior of human capital lead to/what is the outcome?

Organizational performance

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50

What is organizational performance?

Quality of the service/product, profitability, and customer satisfaction

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51

What is sustainable competitive advantage?

An organization is better than competitors at something and can hold that advantage over a sustained period of time

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52

Why can human resources give organizations advantages?

Human resources are valuable, rare, can't be imitated, and they have no good substitutes

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53

What is Google's focus?

Making the employees feel valued, trained, and well compensated resulting in low turnover and high satisfaction

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54

What are the responsibilities of analysis and design on work?

Work analysis, job design, and job descriptions

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55

What is job analysis?

Process of getting detailed information about jobs

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56

What is job design?

Process of defining the way work will be performed and the tasks that a give job requires

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57

What company is one of the only five companies to make Fortune's 100 Best Companies to work for?

REI

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58

What is recruitment?

Process through which the organization seeks applicants for potential employment

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59

What is selection?

Process by which the organization identifies applicants with the necessary knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics that will help the organization achieve its goals

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60

What are values?

Abstract ideals that guide our thinking and behavior across all situations. -generally remains stable across time -global, not specific to context -ex: the way the world should be, how you view other interactions

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61

What leads to positive attitudes and motivations?

A match between an individual's values and their environment and behavior

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62

What are the two dimensions of values in Schwartz's Value Theory?

First bipolar and second bipolar dimension

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63

What is in first bipolar dimension (Schwartz)?

Self transcendence and self enhancement

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64

What is self-transcendence?

Concern for the welfare and interests of others (universalism, benevolence)

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What is self enhancement?

Pursuit of one's own interests and relative success and dominance over others (power, achievement)

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What is in second bipolar dimension (Schwartz)

Openness to change and conservation

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67

What is openness to change?

Independence of thought, action and feelings and readiness for change (stimulation, self direction)

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68

What is conservation?

Order, self restriction, preservation of the past, and resistance to change (conformity, tradition, security)

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69

What are Schwartz's value theory?

-values are motivational and represent broad goals over time -bipolar values are incongruent while adjacent values are complementary

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70

What are the two implications of Schwartz's value theory?

Workplace and Personal application

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71

What is workplace application?

-managers can better manage their employees when they understand an employees' values and motivation

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72

What is personal application?

Employees will derive more meaning from work by pursing goals that are consistent with their values

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73

What are personal attitudes?

-our feelings or opinions about specific people, places, or objects that range from positive to negative -are directed to specific "targets" and influence specific behaviors relevant to the target

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74

What are the three components of attitudes that influence behavior?

-affective (feelings) -cognitive (beliefs) -behavioral (intentions)

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75

What is cognitive dissonance?

-the psychological discomfort experienced when simultaneously holding two or more conflicting cognitions (ideas, beliefs, values, and emotions) -values or beliefs disagreeing

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76

How do we reduce cognitive dissonance?

-changing the attitude or behavior or both -belittling the importance of the inconsistent behavior -finding things that outweigh the dissonant things

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77

What is the theory of planned behavior?

the idea that people's intentions are the best predictors of their deliberate behaviors, which are determined by their attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control

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78

How can leaders influence employees to change their behaviors?

By influencing attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control

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79

What are key workplace potent attitudes

job satisfaction, employee engagement, perceived organizational support, organizational commitment

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80

What is organizational commitment?

The extent to which an employee identifies with an organization and is committed to its goals which leads to greater employee retention and motivation in pursuit of organizational goals

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81

What is perceived organizational support?

The extent to which employees believe that the organization values their contributions and genuinely cares about their well being

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82

What is employee engagemet?

The extent to which employees give it their all to their work roles: urgency, being focused, intensity, and enthusiasm

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83

What contributes to employee engagement?

Personal factors (personality) and situation factors (performance feedback and leadership)

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84

What are the benefits to employees engagement?

Increased customer loyalty and satisfaction, employee performance and well being, and greater financial performance

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85

What is job satisfaction?

An affective or emotional response towards various facets of a job

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86

What are the five models of job satisfaction?

Need fulfillment, met expectations, value attainment, equity, dispositional/genetic components (personality)

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87

What is need fulfillment in job satisfaction?

Understand and meet employees needs

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88

What are meet expectations in job satisfaction?

Meet expectations of employees about what they will receive from job

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89

What is value attainment in job satisfaction?

Structure the job and its rewards to match employee values

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90

What is equity in job satisfaction?

Monitor employee perceptions of fairness and interact with them so they feel fairly treated

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91

What is disposition/genetic components in job satisfaction?

Hire employees with an appropriate disposition

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92

What are the outcomes linked with job satisfaction for attitudes?

Motivation, job involvement, withdrawal cognitions, perceived stress

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93

What are the outcomes linked with job satisfaction for behaviors?

Job performance, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) [voluntary commitment within an organization], counterproductive work behavior (CWB), turnover

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94

Research tells us that job satisfaction and performance

-are moderately related -indirectly influence each other -better to consider the relationship at the business unit level versus at the individual level

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95

Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) represents discretionary individual behaviors that are

-typically not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system -can, in the aggregate, promote effective functioning of the organization

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96

What is counterproductive work behavior (CWB)?

Behaviors that harm other employees, the organization, or organizational stakeholders such as customers and shareholders

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97

How to reduce voluntary turnover

-Hire people who "fit" with the organization's culture -Spend time fostering employee engagement -Provide effective onboard -Recognize and reward high performers

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98

What are fixed individual differences?

Stable over time and across situations and is hard to change

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99

What are flexible Individual differences?

Change over time from situation to situation and can be altered more easily

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100

Why is understanding fixed or flexible individual differences important?

Can select employees based on certain fixed traits and can help manage more flexible traits to increase work performance

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