EXAM 2 A&P

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

what are the 3 types of blood vessels

1 / 285

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

286 Terms

1

what are the 3 types of blood vessels

arteries, capillaries, veins

New cards
2

how many km of vessels are in our body

100,000 km or 60,000 miles

New cards
3

which direction does blood flow in arteries and veins

arteries - away from heart

veins - towards heart

New cards
4

which blood vessels are composed of the three tunics

arteries, arterioles, venules, and veins

New cards
5

what are the three tunics of the blood vessels

tunica intima, tunica media, tunica externa

New cards
6

what tunic layer do capillaries have

only tunica intima - made of endothelium

New cards
7

what is the endothelium made of in the capillaries

only simple squamous tissue, NOT connective tissue

New cards
8

what is tunica intima composed of in non capillaries

endothelium and small amount of connective tissue

New cards
9

what is a lumen

central blood-filled space of a vessel (the tunics encase the lumen)

New cards
10

what is the tunica intima

inner most blood vessel

New cards
11

what is the tunica media

circular smooth muscles regulated by vasomotor nerve fibers - perform vasoconstriction and vasodilation

New cards
12

what is the tunica adventitia (tunica externa)

loose collagen fibers, large vessels have vaso vasorum

New cards
13

what is vaso vasorum

it's the smaller blood vessels that supply blood to the larger blood vessels

New cards
14

what are the three groups of arteries

-elastic or conducting arteries

muscular or

-distributing arteries

-arterioles

*in this order to the capillaries

New cards
15

what is the difference in appearance between veins and arteries

veins looks collapsed and arteries have thick circular walls

New cards
16

what is the order of blood vessels from the heart all the way back to the heart

elastic arteries, muscular arteries, arterioles, terminal arteriole, metarteriole, precapillary sphincter, capillaries, thoroughfare channel, post capillary venule, small veins, large veins

New cards
17

what are characteristic of elastic or conducting arteries

thick walled, largest and close to heart (aorta and it's branches), elastin, can withstand pressure changes, have smooth muscles

New cards
18

what happens if arteries become weak

they may balloon out as an aneurysm and potential burst

New cards
19

is blood flow continuous in arteries

no, blood flow is intermittent due to the pumping of the heart but supply to the tissues is continuous due to the elasticity of the large arteries

New cards
20

what are characteristics of muscular or distributing arteries

deliver blood to body organs, proportionately thicker tunica media, more smooth muscles, active vasoconstriction

New cards
21

what is an example of elastic or conducting arteries

aorta

New cards
22

what is an example of a muscular or distributing arteries

splenic artery

New cards
23

what are characteristics of arterioles

smallest arteries, larger ones will have 3 tunics, but smaller ones have just a little more than just a single layer of smooth muscles around the endothelium

New cards
24

what is example of an arteriole

resistance vessels

New cards
25

what are characteristics of capillaries

smallest blood vessels with thin walls, designed for exchange of materials, has 3 types

New cards
26

what are the three types of capillaries

-continuous

-fenestrated

-sinusoids

New cards
27

what is the diameter of a capillary

8-10 um

New cards
28

what are characteristics of continuous capillaries

common with tight junctions and uninterrupted endothelium

New cards
29

what is an example of continuous capillaries

abundant in skin and muscles

New cards
30

what are characteristics of fenestrated capillaries

pores or fenestration, located where filtrate is formed

New cards
31

what is an example of fenestrated capillaries

small intestine, endocrine organs, kidney

New cards
32

what are characteristics of sinusoid capillaries

discontinuous endothelium, highly modified, irregular, leaky capillaries with Kupffer cells

New cards
33

what are examples of sinusoid capillaries

liver, bone marrow, lymphoid tissues

New cards
34

what are capillary beds

branches of arteries for microcirculation with 2 types of arrangements

New cards
35

what are the two capillary bed arrangements

vascular shunt and true capillaries

New cards
36

what are vascular shunt capillary beds

arteriole, metarteriole, thoroughfare channel, post capillary venule

New cards
37

what are true capillaries (capillary beds)

they perform the actual exchange of vessels

-arteriole, metarteriole, true capillaries, thoroughfare channels, post capillary venule

New cards
38

what feature do all true capillaries have

precapillary sphincter

New cards
39

what are venules

smallest veins

New cards
40

what is the post capillary venule made of

entirely endothelium

New cards
41

what tunics are present in larger venules

the tunica media and adventitia begin to appear as well as tunica interna

New cards
42

do veins have all 3 tunics

yes, but the walls are thinner than arteries and the lumens are larger

New cards
43

which tunica is the heaviest in veins

tunica adventitia, which have less muscles and elastin

New cards
44

what is another name of veins

capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs (less resistance)

New cards
45

what are venous valves

the tunica intima will form valves for one way flow

New cards
46

what is potential problem with venous valves

they can dilate and form varicose veins in pregnant women and form hemorrhoids

New cards
47

what are venous sinuses

specialized flattened veins with thin walls made of endothelium

New cards
48

what are examples of venous sinuses

coronary sinuses of the heart and the dural sinuses of the brain

New cards
49

What are arterial anastomoses?

arteries supplying the same area often merge forming them - they are collateral channels

New cards
50

what is an example of an arterial anastomoses

metarteriole

New cards
51

what are venous anastomoses

common arrangements in the body that we can see under our skin

New cards
52

blood flow

actual volume of blood flowing in the system which is equal to cardiac output

New cards
53

blood pressure

force per unit area of the vessel wall by the blood

New cards
54

resistance

opposition to flow due to friction - mostly from peripheral resistance

New cards
55

what are three sources of resistance

blood viscosity, total blood vessels length, and blood vessel diameter

New cards
56

what is blood viscosity

thickness of blood due to number of blood cells (normally doesn't change)

New cards
57

what is total blood vessel length

direct relationship to resistance, the longer the vessel, the greater the resistance (normally doesn't change)

New cards
58

what is the most important source of blood vessel resistance

blood vessel diameter. the smaller the diameter, the greater the resistance

New cards
59

how does resistance varies in blood vessel diameter

inversely with 4th power of vessel radius (if radius is doubled then the resistance is 1/16 of the original)

New cards
60

how does blood pressure affect rate of flow

increase pressure means increase rate and decreased pressure means low rate of flow

New cards
61

what is blood flow (F) directly proportional to

the difference in blood pressure between two points

New cards
62

what is blood flow (F) inversely proportional to

peripheral resistance (R) in systemic circulation

New cards
63

how can blood flow be expressed mathematically

F= (delta) P/R

New cards
64

how does blood flow change

it's under a pressure gradient, it is highest closest towards the heart and decreases the further from the heart you get

New cards
65

where is the steepest drop in pressure

arterioles

New cards
66

what happens to blood pressure as it goes from arteries to veins

blood pressure decreases

New cards
67

what is arterial blood pressure

the clinical monitoring of circulatory efficiency

New cards
68

what contributes to venous blood pressure

muscular pump, respiratory pump, and sympathetic venoconstriction

New cards
69

what are two factors that affect arterial pressure

compliance or distensibility (how much they can stretch) and volume (of blood entering vessels at a given time)

New cards
70

how is blood pressure measured

pulsatile

New cards
71

what is systolic pressure and what does it average

the squeezing of the heart, averages 120 mm Hg

New cards
72

where is the peak of blood pressure

aorta

New cards
73

what is diastolic pressure and what does it average

relaxation of the heart, normally 80 mm Hg

New cards
74

what is pulse pressure

the difference between systolic and diastolic (normal should be about 40 mm Hg)

New cards
75

What is the mean arterial pressure (MAP)

diastolic pressure + pulse pressure/3 = 93 mm Hg

New cards
76

what is the mean arterial pressure 93 and not 100

because the heart spends more time in diastole than systole

New cards
77

what are vital signs

assessing the efficiency of a person's circulation by measuring pulse and blood pressure

New cards
78

what causes a pulse

the expansion and recoil of elastic arteries, which creates a pressure wave called a pulse. these can be monitored at pressure points

New cards
79

where is blood pressure measured and with what

indirectly from the brachial artery using a sphygmomanomater

New cards
80

what is the blood pressure by the time blood reaches the capillaries

35 mm Hg

New cards
81

what is the blood pressure by the time blood reaches the end of the capillary bed

17 mm Hg

New cards
82

why is the sudden drop in capillaries desirable

capillaries are fragile and most capillaries are extremely permeable and efficiently allow exchange of nutrients and wastes

New cards
83

is venous blood pressure pulsatile

no, it is steady and the lowest BP

New cards
84

what is the pressure gradient from venules to venae cavae

15 mm Hg

New cards
85

is a large lumen and valves enough for venous return

no, it wouldn't be enough. that's why we have three functional pumps to help this process

New cards
86

what are the 5 adaptation that are crucial for venous return

muscular pump, respiratory pump, sympathetic venoconstriction, venous valves, cardiac suction

New cards
87

what is the muscular pump made of

skeletal muscle activity, the contraction/relaxation of these muscles creates a pumping action on veins in extremities pulling blood towards the heart

New cards
88

what is the respiratory pump

results from the respiratory activity which pulls blood towards the lower pressure (trunk)

New cards
89

what is the pressure within the chest cavity

about 4 mm Hg less than atmospheric pressure

New cards
90

what is sympathetic venoconstriction

smooth muscle in tunica media, which is supplied with sympathetic nerve fibers and increases blood flow towards the heart due to decreased venous capacity

New cards
91

what is venoconstriction

sympathetic venoconstriction - the veins constrict which makes the vein small and forces the blood towards the heart

New cards
92

what are the two types of venous valves

varicose veins and superficial veins

New cards
93

what is enforce

the one way flow through veins

New cards
94

what are varicose veins

backflow of blood make the venous valves incompetent

New cards
95

do superficial veins receive support from skeletal muscles and other connective tissue

no, it receives little support

New cards
96

what is a serious consequence of venous valves

abnormal clot formation in the slow-moving pooled blood

New cards
97

how does cardiac activity help to return blood to the heart

during ventricular contraction, the AV valves pull down, creating a vacuum in the atria and during the relaxation of the ventricles, the blood gets pulled into the heart

New cards
98

what is the normal pressure of the atria

0 mm Hg

New cards
99

what type of control regulates blood pressure

short and long term controls

New cards
100

what are the main factors affecting blood pressure

peripheral resistance and blood volume

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2858 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(10)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard29 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard23 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard23 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard82 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 26 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard56 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)