History 101 Exam Study Guide

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Jamestown

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1

Jamestown

The first permanent English settlement (not the first overall) Initially struggled due to: Being in a swampy area (Resulted in disease outbreaks),Settlers were not accustomed to physical labor, and starvation

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2

Mayflower Compact

Early form of Governing Document & Rudimentary Written constitution

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3

Puritans and the impact of religion on early settlements

Early Puritan Settlements: Massachusetts Bay Colony - Puritan Early colonies like this one were settled through religious motivation

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4

Indentured Servants

People who would work as servants for a certain period of time, and then would be citizens of the new world, they were TEMPORARY laborers, eventually replaced with slaves

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5

Cash Crops in the American colonies

Tobacco, rice, indigo, sugar cane, cotton

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6

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

First written Constitution in America A Representative Gov't ruled by popular vote

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7

What was Roger Williams religious idea and how did it differ from Puritan ideas

Roger Williams believed that someone's conscious was not controllable by civil or church authority

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8

Why was the New England Confederation created?

For the colonies to defend themselves from Indian, French, or Dutch attack

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9

What was the primary purpose of the founding of the colony of Georgia?

To act as a defensive "buffer" in between the colonies and Spanish Florida

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10

Who was the founder of Georgia?

James Oglethorpe

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11

What allowed Jamestown to survive?

The cash crop Tobacco

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12

What was the Mayflower Compact?

Governing document created on the Mayflower;Rudimentary written constitution

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13

What is a Proprietary Colony

Colonies under the rule of individuals granted charters from the King

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14

Why were pilgrims known as separatist?

They wanted to separate from the Church of England

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15

Factors that determined eligibility to vote in early colonial America.

Gender, race, religious affiliation, and/or land owned

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16

What was the Great Migration?

The movement of many people to the Mass. Bay Colony due to a civil war in England

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17

Why was Pennsylvania founded?

To provide refuge for Quakers and others persecuted, "The Holy Experiment" Also had a representative government, written constitution, and a written charter that guaranteed religious freedom and open immigration.

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18

How did Anne Hutchinson's teachings differ from Puritan ideas?

She believed that faith, not teachings, were needed for salvation

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19

Half Way Covenant

Puritans had to have a "profound religious experience" to convert However people were not having them, so Halfway Covenants were introduced to keep memberships up It allowed people to become partial members of the Puritan church without having a religious experience

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20

Act of Toleration

Granted religious freedom to ALL christians, but not to those who denied Jesus Was repealed due to Protestant and Catholic conflict

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21

Great Awakening cause

Christians were feeling complacent with their methods of worship Religious movement that swept through the colonies and increased religious zeal and excitement

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22

Message of the Great Awakening

Ministers lost some influence. people no longer needed Ministers to explain the bible

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23

Prominent Individuals of the Great Awakening

John Edwards and George Whitefield

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24

Impact of the Great Awakening in Politics

Created a need for separation of state and church. This affected the Democratic state of the Colonies

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25

Characteristic of Immigration on the Colonies

Most Protestants settled in the Mid-Atlantic colonies and Southern colonies, Fewer settled in New England because of the weather and puritans, they came from England and Germany. And Scotch-Irish.

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26

Characteristics of Colonial Governmen

Self-government - representative assembly and voters that vote on governors. Democratically run under the authority of England.

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27

Accomplishments of Benjamin Franklin

lightning rod, bifocals, and the Franklin stove

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28

French and Indian War

Countries involved- France and England Outcome- England won and Pushed France out of the Ohio river valley. England Also gained Canada. peace treaty- Treaty of Parris 1763

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29

French goal in the New World

create trading posts for the fur trade.

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30

George Washington

gained fame in this war and he fought with the British.After gaining a small initial victory, ton's troops surrendered to a superior force of Frenchmen and their American Indian allies on July 3, 1754.

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31

Pontiac

War launched in 1763 by a loose confederation of Native Americans dissatisfied with British rule in the Great Lakes region following the French and Indian War

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32

Albany Plan of Union

Creator-Benjamin Franklin Goal-A system for recruiting troops and collecting taxes from the various colonies for their common defense.

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33

Fort Duquesne

The French built a fort on the Ohio River to stop further British advancement into lands West of the Appalachian Mountains

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34

Stamp Act

Taxed all paper including legal documents, newspapers

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35

Sugar Act

Taxed sugar and other luxury items to raise money for the crown

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36

Quartering Act

Required colonists to provide food and housing for the British soldiers

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37

Townshend Act

Placed taxes on tea, glass, and paper, and furthered the quartering act.

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38

Intolerable Act

Created to punish the people of Boston. Boston ports closed. Decreased power of Mass. legislature and increased power of Royal Governor.

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39

Pontiac's Rebellion

Pontiac encouraged Ohio Country tribes to unite and to rise up against the British.To prevent the incursion of colonial settlers.

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40

Olive Branch Petition

Was adopted by Congress on July 5th, 1775 to be sent to the King as a last attempt to prevent formal war from being declared.

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41

American Revolution

1765-1783 Reason North American colonies rejected its imperial rule. The protest began in opposition to taxes levied without colonial representation by the British monarchy and Parliament. Result the colonists win over the british with help from france Strengths and weaknesses of both sides colonist: untrained, passionate, home territory, low population, low supplies British: Trained, not common with territory, lots of supplies and population

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42

First Continental Congress

The meeting of 12 of the 13 colonies that would become the United States. They discussed the future of America. Most delegates wanted to restore relations with Britain, but none wanted to remain loyal to the crown.

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43

Common Sense

A book by Thomas Paine argued that the colonies should break ties with Britain and become independent states. A large continent shouldn't be ruled by a "small distant island"

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44

Battle of Saratoga

(Oct. 1777) Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold led America to victory against the British. The British were forced to surrender. This was the first major win for the Patriots. France, Spain, and Holland joined the war against Britain.

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45

Battle of Bunker Hill

(June 1775) The British attacked the colonists and took the hill. The Americans claimed victory, though, because the British suffered heavy losses.

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46

Battle of Valley Forge

(1777-1778) Washington's troops suffered a severe winter camped at Valley Forge. This was an iconic moment of suffering and perseverance for the Patriots.

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47

Paul Revere

He and William Dawes warned the militia of Lexinton about the incoming British troops in Boston.

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48

Second Continental Congress

(May 1775) Conference in Philadelphia. George Washington was appointed commander-in-chief, a force was organized under Benedict Arnold, and they debated about independence vs having a relationship with the British. They issued the Declaration of the Cause and Necessities for Taking Up Arms.

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49

Declaration of Independence

Richard Henry Lee introduced the idea in June of 1776. Jefferson wrote the official document and signed it on July 4th, 1776. This was a move towards independence and outlined their grievances against Britain.

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50

Motivation of Impact of African Americans in the American Revolution

Enslaved African Americans were trying to gain freedom. Around 20,000 African Americans joined the side of the British because of that.

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51

Articles of Confederation

America's first constitution. It was filled with issues and caused lots of problems. It had a 1 house Congress, no executive or judicial branch, and there were no national taxes, which meant the government had no revenue.

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52

Anti-Federalist views on A of C/Bill of Rights

Anti-Federalists supported the Articles of Confederation because the government didn't have much power. They opposed the Constitution, but would be okay with it if the Bill of Rights was passed because they didn't want the government to have too much power.

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53

1st and 2nd Constitutional convention

Issues Larger states have more representatives than smaller states & slavery compromises Connecticut Plan / The Great Compromise (2 house Congress) & 3/5 Compromise (slaves would count as 3/5 of a person and were allowed to be imported for 20 years)

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54

Strengths and weaknesses of the new Constitution

Strong central government that could become too powerful; was supported by the Federalists but not supported by Anti-Federalists

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55

Alexander Hamilton's Financial Program

Pay off national debt, federal government absorbs state debts, high tariffs on imports, and create a National Bank, which was supported by Washington

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56

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Declared the Alien and Sedition Acts as unconstitutional because they overstepped federal authority

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57

Alien Sedition Acts/impact on the Federalist Party

The Federalists were heavily criticized and lost their majority in Congress

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58

Election of 1800

Thomas Jefferson vs Aaron Burr - Jefferson won

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59

Federalist National View

Federalists wanted a strong central government, indirect election of government officials, and representatives

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60

Democratic-Republicans

Stance on tariffs They opposed tariffs Stance on farmers and industry They favored small farmers over industry

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61

Jay's Treaty

A treaty with Britain over impressment. John Jay was sent over to tell them to stop taking their ships. Got them to stay out of NW America

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62

XYZ Affair

French officials (XYZ) sparked an anti-French feeling in America, lots of people wanted to go to war with them but John Adams decided not to

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63

Election of 1796

John Adams VS Thomas Jefferson (Adams won)

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64

Pinckney Treaty

Treaty with Spain, opened trade routes along the Mississippi river

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65

Washington's first cabinet

Secretary of State: TJ, Secretary of Treasury: AH, Secretary of War Henry Knox, and Attorney General Edmund Randolph.

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66

Hamilton's Financial Plan

Wanted the gov't to repay federal and state debts

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67

Marbury vs Madison decision

Marbury sued for commission. Established Judicial review.

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68

War of 1812

About Navy rights and stuff Ended w/ treaty of Ghent

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69

Natives' role in the War of 1812

Helped fight against the Americans because they didn't like them on their land.

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70

Louisiana Purchase

What TJ is known best for Purchased from France New Orleans no longer a trade option TJ worried that if a foreign country controlled New Orleans U.S. risked being involved in foreign affairs Napoleon lost interest in the territory France lost to Toussaint L'Ouverture in Haiti America prepared to offer $10 million for New Orleans, Napoleon offered for $15 million

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71

Effects of the Louisiana Purchase

Doubled the size of America Lessened European presence in NA Increased TJ popularity Showed Federalists as weak

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72

Thomas Jefferson and the elections of 1800 and 1804

Won in a landslide All but 14 electoral votes Aaron Burr not elected for a second term as VP

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73

Impressment

British soldiers impress American sailors into service

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74

War Hawks

Radical Pro-War Democrat Reps from the new Western states

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75

Tecumseh

The Shawnee leader who united tribes East of the Mississippi river to help defeat the Americans

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76

Lewis and Clark

Thomas Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to explore in 1804. Crossed into the Rockies and the Pacific.

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77

Judicial Review

Precedent that someone can review past laws and declare them unconstitutional, was established in Marbury V. Madison.

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78

Tippecanoe

William Henry Harrison destroyed Shawnee headquarters and ends Tecumseh's efforts

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79

Treaty of Greenville

Aimed to end hostilities between the Great Lakes

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80

Monroe Doctrine

any interference in latin america would be seen as an act of aggression against america not used at first used a lot more later

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81

Cotton Gin

Made by eli whitney made processing cotton faster and increased use of slaves

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82

Erie Canal

connected farms to cities better prices

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83

Henry Clay and his American System

protect tariffs, National banks, internal improvements

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84

Era of Good Feelings

President James Monroe Why? One dominant party, peace,lot of optimism and nationalism, got florida

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85

Issue of Slavery

became a large debate between the north and south and sectionalism became rampant and would lead to civil war

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86

President Monroe's constitutional issue

did not have the right to build infrastructure so they left it up to the states

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87

Tariff of 1816

Henry clay's first protective tariff

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88

Missouri Compromise

Impact Divided North and south over issue of slavery on the 36 parallel Vermont and kentucky became states there was a divide between nationalism and sectionalism

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89

Acquisition of the state of Florida

Who was involved in this acquisition? Andrew jackson sent to deal with seminoles raiders then spain scared america would just take florida sold it

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90

Population Growth in the Early 1800s

Reason immigrants from europe Impact increased american population and made us the melting pot

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91

Cumberland Road

paved road connecting ohio indiana illinois in the west

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92

Railroads

connected westward cities like CLEVELAND, CINCINNATI, DETROIT, AND CHICAGO

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93

Lancaster Turnpike

one of the first paved roads of america

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94

Eli Whitney

made the cotton gin

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95

Unions

Purpose/goal get better hours and pay and conditions First Labor Party could not find sorry Commonwealth vs Hunt Decided if unions were legal

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96

Impact of the Embargo Act and War of 1812

screwed over american economy the embargo act did not allow any usa ships to sail to foreign ports and the war of 1812 did nothing but drain the economy and burn the white house and started by impression of american sailors

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97

Conditions of early Urban living

Crowded, poor sanitation, disease, high crime rates

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98

Why did people continue to move to Urban areas?

Opportunity for a better life and people like them lived there (Irish in Boston)

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99

Irish

Tenant Farmer, Catholic, Democrats, moved to America because of the potato famine

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100

Germans

Midwest, anti-slavery, pro-education

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