AP Psychology - "New" Vocabulary (Units 1-14)

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Behavior Feedback Effect

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29 Terms

1

Behavior Feedback Effect

The tendency of behavior to influence our own and others' thoughts, feelings, and actions

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2

Other-Race Effect

The tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races

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3

Relational Aggression

An act of aggression (physical or verbal) intended to harm a person's relationship or social standing

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4

Affiliation Need

The need to build relationships and to feel part of a group

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5

Yerkes-Dodson Law

The principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases

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6

Self-Efficacy

Researched by Albert Bandura; beliefs concerning one's ability to perform the behaviors needed to achieve desired outcomes; your personal control

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7

Anterograde Amnesia

An inability to form new memories

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8

Deep Processing

Encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention

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9

Encoding Specificity Principle

The idea that cues and contexts specific to a particular memory will be most effective in helping us recall it

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10

Episodic Memory

Explicit memory of personally experienced events; one of our two conscious memory systems

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11

Retrograde Amnesia

An inability to retrieve information from one's past

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12

Testing Effect

Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information. Also referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning

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13

Sequential Processing

Processing one aspect of a problem at a time; generally used to process new information or to solve difficult problems

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14

Emerging Adulthood

A period from about age 18 to the mid-twenties, when many in Western cultures are no longer adolescents but have not yet achieved full independence as adults

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15

Epigenetics

"Above" or "in addition to" genetics; the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change

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16

Intersex

A condition present at birth due to unusual combinations of male and female chromosomes, hormones, and anatomy; possessing biological sexual characteristics of both sexes

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17

Olfaction

The sense of smell

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18

Blindsight

A condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it

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19

Change Blindness

Failing to notice changes in the environment; a form of inattentional blindness

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20

All-Or-None Response

A neuron's reaction of either firing (with a full-strength response) or not firing

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21

Hippocampus

A neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit (conscious) memories of facts and events for storage

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22

Memory Consolidation

The neural storage of a long term memory

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23

Reuptake

A neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron

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24

Dual Processing

The principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks

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25

Mindfulness Meditation

A reflective practice in which people attend to current experiences in a nonjudgmental and accepting manner

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26

Higher-Order Conditioning

A procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone. (Also called second-order conditioning)

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27

Instinctive Drift

The tendency for a conditioned response to drift back toward instinctive behavior

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28

Reinforcement

In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

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29

Reinforcement Schedule

A pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced

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