PARASITOLOGY LEC EXAM 1 REVIEWER

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Clinical parasitology

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133 Terms

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Clinical parasitology

deals with the parasites of the man and their medical significance

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Parasitology

area of biology concerned with the phenomenon of dependence of one living organism on another

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3

Host

larger organism which provides physical protection and noursihment

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4

Definitive/ Final Host

in which parasites attain sexual maturity (man)

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5

Immediate Host

Harbors the sexual or larval stage of the parasite

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6

Paratenic/ Transport Host

No development occurs but the parasite remains alive and infective

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Reservoir Host

allow parasite’s life cycle to continue and become additional sources of human infection

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8

Vector

transmits parasites to humans or animals

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Zoonosis

parasites found in animals are transmitted to human (usually through consumption)

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10

Obligate parasites

Cannot exist without a host

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11

Free living stage

Live outside the host within a protective eggshel or cyst

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12

Facultative parasites

  • live either a parasite or a free-living existence

  • type of parasites that is flexible

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13

Infection

produced by endoparasites found inside the body

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14

Infestation

produced by ectoparasites outside the body

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15

Commensalism

only one parter benefits from the association but the host is neither helped nor harmed

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16

Mutualism

Relationship is beneficial both to the parasite and the host

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17

Parasitism

one partner benefits at the enzyme of the other

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18

parasitism

most type of relationship the parasites adopt to

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19

Pseudopodia/ Pseudopods

temporary extensions of the cells/ plasma membrane and used for locomotion and feeding and movement is like protoplasmic streaming

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20

pseudopods

utilizes iron from RBC

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21

flagella

slender whip-like structure

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22

cilia

Tiny, hair-like structure composed of kinetids

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23

kinetids

functional unit of cilia

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24

Binary fission/ longitudinal binary fission

parasites produces asexually via

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25

2 daughter cells

how many daugher cells will Binary fission/ longitudinal binary fission give off?

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26

multiple fission

nucleus of the parent divides into many daughter cells by?

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27

sexual reproduction

involves the participation of 2 whole cells

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28

Gametogony

meiosis, sexual reproduction by union of 2 whole cells

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29

gametes

daughter cells is also called as

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30

mouth

most common point of entry

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31

fomites

exposure from inanimate objects

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32

traumatic damage

when the parasite puctures the skin producing wounds, that’s when trauma happens

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Lytic necrosis

enzymes are involved, enzymes are released by the parasites and digest possible food that is available in the environment

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34

surgical intervention

method of treatment for macroorganisms

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35

Cellular proliferation and Infiltration

there is an increase in the RBCs/ WBCs at the site of parasitic infection

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36

Trypanosoma cruzi

etiologic agent of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis

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37

Stercoraria

group of Trypanosoma cruzi

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38

myocytes and reticuloendothelial sytsem

heavily infected cell of Trypanosoma cruzi

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39

reduviid bug

what is the vector of Trypanosoma cruzi?

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40

amastigotes

diagnostic stage of Trypanosoma cruzi

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41

trypomastigotes

infective stage of Trypanosoma cruzi

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42

bloodstream

in humans trypomastigotes are found in

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43

tissue cells

in humans amastigotes is found in

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44

midgut

in vector amastigote, epimastigote and promastigote is found in

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45

hindgut

in vector trypomastigote is found in

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46

amastigote

  • round/ovoid shape

  • 1.5-4 micrometer

  • found in small groups of cysts like collections in tissues

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47

trypomastigote

  • 15-20 micrometer

  • pointed posterior end

  • has an undulating membrane with 2-3 undulations

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48

trypomastigote

  • has a single thread-like flagellum

  • C-shaped in stained specimens

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49

Trypanosoma cruzi

associated with megasyndrome

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50

acute stage

focal or difuse inflammation mainly affecting myocardium

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51

Chagomas

furuncle like lesions associated with induration, central edema, regional lymphadenopathy also represents as a site of entry for parasite

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52

Romana’s sign

eyelid swelling

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53

Latent/indeterminate phase

this stage is usually asymptomatic but still capable of transmitting the disease through vectors, blood transfusion and organ transplant

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54

1/3

about ____ developes to chronic stage

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55

chronic stage

stage that is multifactorial which means that it is dependent on the reaction between the parasite and the host

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56

heart

primary affected organ in chronic stage

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57

megasyndrome

fibrotic reactions leads to ____

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58

direct visualization of the parasites in thick and thin blood smears using Giemsa stain

definitive diagnosis of acute stage

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59

2 months

trypomastigotes can only be detected in the first ____ of acute disease

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60

2 techniques

for chronic stage, it recommends at least ____ to show a postive result

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61

Nifurtimox and Benznidazole

used to treat Trypanosoma cruzi

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62

10 million

Trypanosoma cruzi infected more than ___ worldwide

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63

Latin America

most cases of Trypanosoma cruzi is in

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64

Central and South America

endemic areas are ___

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65

third

In 2003, it ranked as ___ as the leading cause of parasitic infection worldwide

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66

Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma brucei brucei

What are the 3 Trypanosoma brucei or also known as the Trypanosoma complex

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67

Human African Trypanosomiasis

Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense causes

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68

African sleeping sickness

a highly fatal disease

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69

Trypanosoma brucei brucei

it affects wild and domestic animals

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70

east Africa

Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is endemic in ____

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71

Western and Eastern region of Sub-Saharan Africa

Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is endemic in _____

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72

Trypanosoma brucei gambiense

primarily affects human but utilizes dogs, pigs and sheep as a reservoir hosts

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73

Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

primarily a zoonosis of cattle and wild animals

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Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

humans are accidental hosts

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75

Trypanosoma brucei gambiense

chronic type of sleeping sickness

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Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

more rapid and acute fatal form of sleeping sickness

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Trypanosoma brucei gambiense

Causes 95% of cases of Human African Trypanosomiasis

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78

Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

Causes 5% of cases of Human African Trypanosomiasis

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epimastigote and trypomastigote

the only 2 stages of Trypanosoma brucei complex

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80

chancre

initial lesion, painful, local, pruritic, erythematous located at bite site progressing into a central eschar, resolving after 2-3 weeks

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Trypanosoma brucei gambiense

chancre is more common in

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82

hemolymphatic

early phase is also known as

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83

1-6 months

early phase lasts for how many months

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84

Winterbottom’s sign

for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense- posterior cervical lymph nodes are enlarged, nontender and rubbery

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85

Late phase

This phase involces the CNS

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86

meningoencephalitic

late phase is also known as

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87

3-10 months

Trypanosoma brucei gambiensein late phase occur ____ after initial infection

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88

after few weeks

Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense manifests ___

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89

Kerandel’s sign

deep, delayed hyperesthesia

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90

Antigenic variation

ability of trypanosomes to continuously change its surface coat so that the host’s antibodies can’t recognize the parasite in subsequent waves of parasitemia

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91

Early phase/ hemolymphatic

diagnosis is usually done in what phase?

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92

Giemsa stain

used for thick and thin blood film

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93

Buffy coat concentration

recommended to detect parasites in low numbers

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94

Card agglutination test (CATT)

  • detect circulating antigens in persons infected with Trypanosoma brucei complex

  • rapid and highly specific method for screening

  • available commercially

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95

Intravenous Suramin Sodium

used to treat Trypanosoma brucei gambiense/ rhodesiense in early phase

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96

Intramuscular pentamidine

used to treat Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in early phase

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97

Intravenous melarsoprol

drug of choice for both type of sleeping sickness during the late phase

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98

Nitrofurazone

second line of drug for late phase

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99

Eflornithine

  • may also be used during the early phase

  • less toxic than melarsoprol

  • only effective against Trypanosoma brucei gambiense

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100

Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

is an occupational hazard for persons working in game reserves and game parks

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