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Absorption

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825 Terms

1

Absorption

Taking up of nutrients in the intestines

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2

Adipose tissue

Fatty tissue

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3

Aerobic metabolism

Combining nutrient oxygen within the cell; also called oxidation.

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4

Albumin

Protein that occurs in blood plasma

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5

Alkalosis

Condition in which excess base accumulates in, or acids are lost from, the body.

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6

Amphetamines

Drugs intended to inhibit appetite

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7

Anemia

Condition caused by insufficient number of red blood cells, hemoglobin or blood volume.

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8

Angina pectoris

Pain in the heart muscle due to inadequate blood supply.

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9

ascites

Abnormal collection of fluid in the abdomen.

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10

aspirated

Inhaled or suctioned

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11

Atherosclerosis

a form of arteriolosclerosis affecting the intima (inner lining) of the artery walls

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12

Beriberi

Deficiency disease caused by lack of vitamin b1 thiamine. Legs feel heavy feet burn and muscles degenerate.

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13

Basal metabolism rate BMR

The rate at which energy is needed for body maintenance.

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14

Bioavailable

The ability of a nutrient to be readily absorbed and used by the body

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15

Bolus

Food in the mouth that is ready to be swallowed

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16

Buffer systems

Protective systems regulating amounts of hydrogen ions in body fluids

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17

Cachexia

Severe malnutrition and body wasting caused by chronic disease

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18

Carboxypeptidase

pancreatic enzyme necessary for protein digestion

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19

nutrients (6)

Chemical substances that are found in food and necessary for good health. Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water.

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20

Essential nutrient

Nutrients found only in food

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21

Carbohydrates

About 50% of diet. Provides energy. Protein sparing action. Normal fat metabolism. Three types.

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22

Disaccharides

Double sugars. Hydrolysis to monosaccharides. Examples are sucrose maltose and lactose

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23

Polysaccharides

Complex carbohydrates containing combinations of monosaccharides. Examples include starch dextrin cellulose and glycogen

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24

Glycogen

Glucose that is stored in the liver and muscles. Approximately 1/2 day supply of energy is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles

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25

Fiber

Indigestible parts of plants; absorbs water in large intestine, helping to create soft stool.

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26

Cellulose

Primary sources of dietary fiber

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27

Endosperm

The inner part of the kernel of grain; contains a carbohydrate. Contain starch protein and some B vitamins

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28

Lipids and fat

Formed from glycerol Provides energy. 9 calories

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29

function of stomach

temporary storage of food. mixing of food with gastric juices. regulation of a slow, controlled emptying of food into the intestine. sexretion of the factor for B12. destruction of most bacteria.

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30

sphincter malfunction

causes acid reflux disease.

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31

cholecytokinin (cck)

triggers gallbladder to release bile for the digestion of fat

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32

small intestine in digestion

most nutrients absorbed. breaks down lactose maltose and sucrose.

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33

volatile fatty acids

acetate, propionate, butyrate. absorbed from large intestine and used as energy.

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34

fat soluble vitamin deficency

occur in those with chronic malabsorbtion disease such as cystic fibrosis, celiac, and chrons disease.

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35

fat soluble. vitamins

A D E K. not lost easily in cooking but lost with mineral oil. after absprbtion they are transported through the body by lipoproteins. megadoses more common because they are stored

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36

water soluble vitamins

B and c. easily destroyed easily by air light and cooking

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37

Vitamin A

An antioxidant plays an important role in vision, bone growth, reproduction, cell division, antioxidant, regulates immune system.

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38

retinol

The active form of vitamin A. Preformed vitamin A

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39

xeropthalmia

blindness caused by mucous membranes of eye Sign of a deficiency of vitamin K.

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40

Deficiency of vitamin D

May lead to osteomalacia which then can evolve into osteoporosis

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41

riboflavin B2

essential for carbohydrate fat and protein metabolism. Necessary for tissue maintenance. And healthy eyes

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42

vitamin b6

Essential for protein metabolism and absorption, aids in the release of glucose from glycogen, amino acids present in excessive amounts can be converted to those in which the body is temporarily deficient

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43

cobalamin vitamin b12

Contains cobalt. Involved in folate metabolism, maintenance of the myelin sheath, and healthy red blood cells.

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44

meyelin

Lipoprotein essential for the protection of nerves.

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45

campylobacter jejuni

transmitted through unpasturized milk, contaminated water, raw meat, shellfish. Caused by indigestion of bacteria. Symptoms diarrhea fever headache abdominal pain and nausea

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46

clostridium botulinum

Improperly canned foods. Symptoms double vision speech difficulties inabiluty to swallow,respiratory problems. spores. deadliest

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47

clostridium perfringens

"cafeteria germ". outbreaks occur with large quantities of food. spore forming pathogen. symptoms: inflammation of stomach anf intestie

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48

cyclospora

feces contaminated food. parasite that causes gastroebteritis. watery diarrhea, cramps, fever.

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49

E. coli

bacteria found in intestines of animals transmitted through contaminated water milk juice meats produce.

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50

listeria monocytogenes

bacteria found in intestines. grows in fridge. normal bad symptoms.

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51

salmonellosis

bacteria from raw meats and eggs. symptoms: headache, vomitting diarrea. abdominal cramps and fever. begin 6-48hrs. causes salmonella.

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52

shingella

causes shungellosis. symptoms occur from 1 day to a week after infection. degydration.

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53

straphylococcus aureas

bacteria found on human skin and open wounds. causes staph. symptoms begin 30min to 8hrs abd last 24-48 hrs.

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54

trichinosis

parasitic roundworm from uncooked pork.

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55

dysentary

disease from protozoa. severe diarrhea

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56

canning temperature

212 to 250

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57

cooking T

140 to 212

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58

danger zone for food contamination

40 to140

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59

meat eggs cooking T

about 160

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60

polysaccaride

starch dextrkn cellulose and glucogen

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61

essential fatty acids

derived from triglycerides linoleic and linolenic and okeic acids. omega 3 and 6.

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62

nonessestial fatty acids

onega 9.

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63

fat metabolism

controlled by liver. metabolism ulyimately happens in cells.

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64

hiatal hernia

Small frequent meals so the stomach is never full with food. Avoid irritants to you esophogus such as citrus and carbonated beverages

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65

peptic ulcer

Low fat protein should be provided but not in excess

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66

diverticulosis

High-fiber diet required

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67

Inflammatory bowel disease

Requires a low residue diet

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68

ileostomy

Greater need for salt and water because of excess losses. Vitamin C supplement is recommended in some cases B-12 supplements may be needed

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69

celiac disease

gluten contolled diet.

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70

Provide Energy, Build and Repair Body Tissue, Regulate Body Processes

Three main functions of the 6 essential nutrients

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71

Carbs, Proteins, and Fats

Nutrients used primarily to provide energy

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72

Proteins, Vitamins, and Minerals

Nutrients used mainly to repair body tissues

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73

low-nutrient-density foods

Potato Chips, cakes, sodas, and candy

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74

Organic

Products grown without pesticides

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75

Fat

Organic Nutrient, A large lipid molecule made from an alcohol called glycerol and three fatty acids; a triglyceride. Function as energy-storage molecules.

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76

African American Foods

Down-home breads are served with most meals. Black-eyed peas, okra, sweet potatoes, peanuts, corn, green beans, and peppers are important. Pork, chicken, fried fish.

High in fat, sodium, and carbs. deficient in iron, calcium, fiber, potassium, vitamin C.

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77

French American Foods

Cajun. Lacking calcium, vitamins D, E, and C

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78

Mexican Foods

Beans, rice, tomatoes, onions, jalapenos, chilies. Pork, goat, garlic, wheat, refritos, avacoadoes, cheese. Flan is a favorite dessert.

Lacking vitamin C. Calcium intake is low because of lactose intolerance.

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79

Puerto Rican

Corn, wheat, seafood, beef, pork, rice, olive oil, chicken, pinto beans, and okra. Plantains, green bananas, potatoes, squash, taro, and breadfruit. Pineapple, mango, papayas, guava, and coconut.

Not enough calcium.

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80

Italian Foods

pasta, rice, beans, olives, fruits, vegetables, seafood. Beef is seldom. Salami, veal and pork is favored. cheese is important. fat is usually olive oil. dessert is fruit.

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81

Greek Foods

Salads. Bread is the basis. fruity olive oil. seafood, lamb, goat, and pork.

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82

North European foods

large servings of meat. little sides of vegetables and starch. greens, potatoes, beets, mushrooms, barley, plums, rye. sausages, cheese, dark bread, dairy. pickled herring.

needs more vitamins, minerals, fiber

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83

Central European foods

pork and chicken are common. beef sausage and fish are popular too. cabbage sauerkraut, carrots, turnips, potatoes, beans, lentils, onions. spatzle, dark bread, and muesli are main carbs. eggs and dairy.

needs fewer fat

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84

Middle Eastern foods

lamb. pita, flat, sourdough breads. legumes. chickpeas/hummus. dairy. fruits, dates, figs.

need more vitamins, minerals, fiber

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85

Chinese foods

5 essential grains: rice, soybeans, barley, wheat, millet. many vegetables. protein is from seafood, eggs, pork, chicken, beef, tofu.

Soy Sauce is high in sodium which contributes to high blood pressure. not enough calcium.

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86

Japanese food

protein is from seafood, chicken, and eggs. sushi is popular.

need fruits.

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87

Southeast Asian Foods

rice and noodles. two times as much fish than other meats.

High sodium intake.

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88

Indian Foods

lentils, beans, and milk are the proteins.

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89

5.5oz

daily intake from protein for a 2000 calorie diet

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90

complex carbs

rich in dietary fiber and B vitamins

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91

mouth

digestion begins here

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92

duodenum, jejunum, ileum

three sections of the small intestine in descending order

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93

enzyme

organic substance that causes changes in other substances

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94

small intestine

maltase, sucrase, and lactase are produced here

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95

weight increase

energy intake > energy output

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96

BMR (basal metabolic rate)

the energy needed to maintain life-sustaining activities for a specific period of time at rest. Calculated by converting weight to kg. multiply by 24. multiply by .9 if female. 1 for men.

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97

liver and muscles

where glycogen is stored

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98

monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, galactose

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99

ketones

when insufficient carbs are eaten, liver produces

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100

insoluble dietary fiber

can decrease blood cholestrol

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