Chapter 11 review (copy)

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Jeannette Rankin

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Jeannette Rankin

Who was the first woman elected into Congress?

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Nationalism, Militarism, Imperialism and Alliance System.

Nationalism, Militarism, Imperialism and Alliance System. What were the four causes of WWI?

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Nationalism

A devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation.

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Competitive and antagonistic rivalries.

What did Nationalism often lead to?

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Imperialism

A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.

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Europe's Slavic people

Europe's Slavic people. What did Russia regard itself as the protector of?

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Increase military spending

What did the growth of Nationalism and Imperialism lead to?

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Militarism

The development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy.

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Germany

By 1890, which country was the strongest nation in Europe?

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The British Navy.

Britain always relied on what for defense and protection?

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Alliance System

A formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another's defense.

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The Triple Entente

France, Great Britain, Russia.

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The Allies

During WWI, the Triple Entente was later known as...

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The Triple Alliance

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy.

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Italy

Which country left the Triple Alliance and joined the Allies?

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The poweder keg of Europe

The Balkan Peninsula was known as what?

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Ethnic rivalries among the Balkan people

What type of rivalries happened in the Balkan Peninsula?

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18

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Was the heir to the Austrian throne

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Gavrilo Princip

The assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie

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The Black Hand

An organization promoting Serbian nationalism.

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Britain

Which country declared war on Germany?

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This plan called for a holding action against Russia, combined with a quick drive through Belgium to Paris; after France had fallen, the two German armies would defeat Russia.

The Schlieffen Plan

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The Marne River in France.

Where did the Allies eventually stop the German advance?

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"No man's land"

A barren expanse of mud pockmarked with shell craters and filled with barbed wire.

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60,000 on the first day alone.

How many deaths did the british experience during the battle of somme?

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1.2 million

Final casualties of the battle of the Somme totaled what?

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Trench Warfare

A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield.

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Socialist

Criticized the war as a capitalist and imperialist struggle between Germany and England to control markets and colonies in China, Africa, and the Middle East.

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Pacifist

Believed that war was evil and that the United States should set an example of peace to the world.

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Why did millions of naturalized U.S. citizens followed the war closely?

Because they still had ties to the nations from which they had emigrated. For example, many Americans of German descent sympathized with Germany. Americans of Irish descent remembered the centuries of British oppression in Ireland and saw the war as a chance for Ireland to gain its independence.

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Why did many Americans felt close to Britain?

Because of a common ancestry and language as well as similar democratic institutions and legal systems.

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What caused increase American sympathy for the Allies?

Germany's aggressive sweep across Belgium.

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Who was called "The bully of Europe."

Germany.

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34

By 1917 America had mobilized for war against the Central Powers for what two reasons?

To ensure Allied repayment of debts to the United States and to prevent the Germans from threatening U.S. shipping.

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35

Using it's naval strength, the British did what to Germany?

It blockaded the German coast to prevent weapons and other military supplies from getting through. However, the British expanded the definition of contraband to include food. They also extended the blockade to neutral ports and mined the entire North Sea.

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36

How many Germans starved to death as a result of the British blockade?

750,000 German civilians died because of the British blockade.

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How did Germany respond to the British blockade?

A counter-blockade with U-boats.

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May 7, 1915

A U-boat named U-20 sank the British liner Lusitania off the southern coast of Ireland. Of the 1,198 persons lost, 128 were Americans.

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39

Germany agreed to change it's tactics under what condition?

If the United States could persuade Britain to lift it's blockade against food and fertilizers, Germany would consider renewing unrestricted submarine warfare.

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40

Woodrow Wilson

Who won the 1916 election

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41

After the election, Wilson tried to do what between the warring alliances?

Mediate between the warring alliances.

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42

In a speech before the Senate in January 1917, Wilson called for what?

"A peace without victory... a peace between equals," in which neither side would impose harsh terms on the other.

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Who ignored Wilson's call for peace?

Germany ignored.

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44

On January 31, Kaiser Wilhelm II announced that U-boats would do what?

Sink all ships in British waters - hostile or neutral - on site.

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Zimmerman Note

Peace alliance

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46

In March, the oppressive Russian monarchy was replaced with what?

A representative government.

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47

Eddie Rickenbacker

Famous "ace" pilot who downed 26 enemy fighters in WWI.

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48

Who did Rickenbacker fight against?

He fought the dreaded Flying Circus, which is a German air squadron led by the "Red Baron", Manfred von Richthofen.

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49

How many men were in service when the U.S. declared war?

Only 200,000 men.

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50

Selective Service Act

Passed by Congress in May of 1917, the act required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service.

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51

How many men were registered by the end of 1918?

24 million men were registered.

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52

Of the 24 million men registered, how many were called up to be soldiers?

3 million men.

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53

Of the 3 million men called to serve, how many troops reached Europe before the truce was signed?

2 million men.

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54

How many of the drafted men saw actual combat?

1.5 million men.

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How many African Americans served in the armed forces?

About 400,000 men.

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More than half of the African Americans served where?

In France.

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They were segregated

How were African American soldiers treated differently?

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Who were the two soldiers of the 369th to receive France's highest military honor, the Croix de Guerre—the "cross of war"?

Henry Johnson and Needham Roberts.

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59

During a soldier's 18-month training period partly in the U.S. and partly in Europe, they put in 17 hour long days doing what?

Target practice, bayonet drill, kitchen duty, and cleaning up the grounds.

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60

Although women were not allowed to enlist in the war, the army reluctantly accepted them into what?

The Army Corps of Nurses.

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61

How many women accepted noncombat position in the navy and the marines, where they served as nurses, secretaries, and telephone operators with full military rank?

13,000 women.

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62

The United States had to find a way to transport what over thousands of miles of ocean?

Men, food, and equipment.

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Vice Admiral William S. Sims

Convinced the British to try the convoy system.

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Convoy System

In which a heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships back and forth across the Atlantic in groups.

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By fall of 1917, shipping losses had been cut by how much?

They have been cut in half.

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66

The U.S. Navy also helped lay what?

A 230-mile barrier of mines across the North Sea from Scotland to Norway.

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67

Of the almost 2 million Americans who sailed to Europe during the war, how many were lost due to U-boat attacks?

637 men.

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68

General John J. Pershing

General of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) in WWI.

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69

What were the two most innovative weapons of WWI?

Tanks and airplanes.

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Why were tanks so effective?

Tanks ran on caterpillar treads and were built of steel so that bullets bounced off.

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How were early airplanes used in the war?

They were used for scouting because early airplanes were so flimsy.

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72

By 1918, the British had built up a strategic bomber force of how many planes to attack German factories and army bases?

22,000 planes.

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73

What were the fighting men surrounded by?

Filth, lice, rats, and polluted water that caused dysentery.

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Shell Shock

A complete emotional collapse from which many never recovered.

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Trench Foot

This was an infection of the feet caused by cold, wet and insanitary conditions.

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Trench Mouth

A painful infection of the gums and throat common among soldiers in WWI.

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What did the Germans do in response of the Russians pulling out of the war in 1917?

The Germans shifted their armies from the eastern front to the western front in France.

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78

How close was Germany to Paris?

50 miles

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Where else did the Americans help defend against the Germans?

Château-Thierry and Belleau Wood.

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Alvin York

On October 8, 1918, armed only with a rifle and a revolver, York killed 25 Germans captured 132 prisoners.

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81

November 11, at 11:00am of 1918

Germany agreed to a cease-fire and signed the armistice that ended the war.

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Armistice

A truce.

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How many people died in WWI?

22 million people. Of that number half were civilians.

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84

How many people were wounded because of the war?

20 million people.

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85

How many people became refugees because of the war?

10 million people.

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86

About $338 billion.

What was the direct economic cost of the war?

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48,000 men.

How many U.S. soldiers died in WWI?

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200,000 men.

How many U.S. soldiers were wounded in WWI?

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62,000 men.

How many U.S. soldiers were dying because of diseases?

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90

The economy had to change from producing consumer goods to producing war supplies.

How did the economy have to change for the war effort?

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91

Congress gave President Wilson direct control over much of the economy, including the power to fix prices and to regulate certain war-related industries.

What economic powers did Congress give Wilson?

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92

The War Industries Board

What agency oversaw the industrial war effort?

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Bernard M. Baruch.

Who was in charge of the WIB?

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The board encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to increase efficiency. It also urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing products

What did the board do?

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95

The US increased by about 20 percent. Retail prices soared. Corporate profits soared as well.

How was production affected?

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96

Many people adopted "gasless Sundays" and "lightless nights" to conserve fuel.

What was done to conserve fuel?

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97

They rose by about 20 percent.

What happened to blue collar wages?

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98

Uneven pay between labor and management, increasing work hours, child labor, and dangerously "sped-up" conditions, unions boomed.

What factors led to the growth of unions?

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99

If workers who refused to obey board decisions could lose their draft exemptions.

What was the purpose of the National War Labor Board?

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100

to help produce and conserve food.

What was the purpose of the Food Administration?

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