psych test unit 7 modules 52-64

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motivation

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164 Terms

1

motivation

a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

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2

instinct

complex behavior that is ridgedly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

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3

instinct theory

behaviors, thoughts, and emptions are innate and serve as a survival mechanism

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4

physiological need

basic bodily requirements; clothing, water, food, houses

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5

drive-reduction theory

idea that a physiological need creates an aroused state that motivates the organism to satisfy the need

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6

homeostasis

tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state

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7

incentive

positive or negative environmental stimuli that motivates behavior

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8

overjustification effect

when an instrensic motivation is diminished by preforming an action for extrensic motivators

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9

optimal arousal theory

idea that individuals are motivated to seek a specific level of physiological arousal

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10

yerkes-dodson law

principle that preformance increases with arousal only up to a point beyond which preformance decreases

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11

abraham maslow

humanistic psychologist

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12

maslows heirarchy of needs

  1. biological and physiological needs

  2. saftey needs

  3. love and belongingness needs

  4. esteem needs

  5. self-actualization needs

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13

biological and physiological needs

air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep

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14

saftey needs

protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, freedom from fear

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15

love and belongingness needs

friendship, intimacy, affection and love- from work group, family, friends, romantic relationships

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16

esteem needs

achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, self-respect, respect from others

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17

self-actualization needs

realizing personal potential, self-fullfilment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences

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18

glucose

blood sugar

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19

insulin

hormone secreted by the pancreas that controls blood glucose levels

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20

hypothalamus

lateral hypothalamus makes people hungry, and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus satisfys hunger

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21

orexin/hypocretins

hunger triggering hormone released by the hypothalamus

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22

leptin

protein hormone secreted by fat cells, when abundent in increases metabolism and decreases hunger

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23

PYY

digestive tract hormone that signals “i am not hungry”

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24

ghrelin

in your stomach and sends “im hungry” signals to the brain

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25

set point

weight thermostat, a point at which a persons weight may be set

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26

basal metabolicrate

the bodies resting rate of energy output

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27

asexual

having no sexual attraction to others

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28

estrogens

levels have coorelated with sexual motivation, most important female sex hormone

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29

alfred kinsey

researched sexual behavior in males and females

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30

kinsey scale

scale of heterosexual to homosexual behaviors

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31

william masters

OBGYN

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32

virginia johnson

research assistant/ masters mistress

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33

sexual response cycle

created the theory that there are 4 stages of sexual response. -excitement, platoe, orgasm, resolution

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34

refactory period

resting period that occurs after orgasm, during which a person cannot acheive another orgasm

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35

bassons nonlinear model of sexual response

criticism of masters and johnsons sexual response cycle

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36

affilliation need

the need to build relationships and feel part of a group

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37

ostracism

deliberate social exclusion of individuals and groups

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38

narcissicm

excessive self love and self absorbtion

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39

achievement motivation

desire for significant accomplishment for mastery of skills or ideas for control and for ataining a high standard

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40

grit

passion and perserverence in pursuit of longterm goals

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41

emotion

a response of the whole organism involving 1. psychological arousal, 2. expressive behaviors, 3. concious experience

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42

james-lange theory

the experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to an emotion arousing stimulus

-perception of emotion-arousing stimulus

-specific physiological changes

-interpretation of physiological changes as the emotion

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43

cannon-bard theory

that an emotion arousing stimulus simutaneously triggers physiological responses and teh subjective experience of emotion

-perception of emotion, arousing stimulus

-thalamus to cortex: emotional response

-thalamus to hypothalamus: physiological change

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44

two factor theory

to experience emotion one must be physiologically aroused and cognitively label the arousal

-stimulus → arousal → cognitively label → emotion

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45

schachter-singer

a concious cognitive label

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46

zajonc/ledoux

believed that some events lead straight to an emotion

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47

spillover effect

idea that emotions of another individual or another situation cant effect emotional responses

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48

insula

neural center- deep in the brain, associated with broad emotions

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49

polygraph

machine-used in an attempt to detect lies by measuring physiological responses accompaning emotions

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50

universal emotions

theory that a list of emotions all human beings experience and express

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51

paul ekman

came up with universal emotions

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52

anger

-eyebrows pulled down

-upper lids pulled down

-lower lids pulled up

-margins of lips rolled in

-lips may be tightened

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53

fear

-eyebrows pulled up and together

-upper eyelids pulled up

-mouth stretched

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54

disgust

-eyebrows pulled down

-nose wrinkled

-upper lip pulled up

-lips loose

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55

contempt

-eyes neutral

-lip corner pulled up and back on one side only

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56

joy

-muscle around the eyes tightened

-”crows feet” wrinkles around eyes

-cheeks raised

-lip corners raised diagonally

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57

sadness

-inner corners of eyebrows raised

-eyelids loose

-lip corners pulled down

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58

surpise

-entire eyebrow pulled up

-eyelids pulled up

-mouth hangs open

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59

gender and expressiveness

women are more liklet ro express emotion

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60

gender empathy

women have more empathy then men

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61

facial feedback effect

tendency of facial muscle states to trigger cooresponding feelings such as fear, anger, or joy

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62

behavior feedback effect

tendency of behavior to influence our own and others thoughts, feelings, and actions

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63

stress

process by which we percieve and respond to certain events that we appraise as threatening or challenging

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64

stress appraisal

how we percieve events as either threatening or challenging based on our available resources

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65

stressors

events appraised as either threatening or challenging

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66

kurt lewin motivational conflicts theory

→approach approach conflict

→avoidance avoidance conflict

→approach avoidance conflict

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67

approach approach conflict

stressful situations with 2 attractive by incompatible goals

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68

avoidance avoidance conflict

when the stressor is 2 unattractive options spp

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69

approach avoidance conflict

conflict with both attractive and unnatractive consequences

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70

cortison-gulucocorticoid

stress hormone

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71

general adaptation syndrome (Hans Selye)

bodys adaptive response to stress in 3 phases. alarm, resistance, exaustion

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72

alarm stage

a person mobilizes their resources in response to a stressor

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73

resistance stage

when an individual copes with a stressor

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74

exaustion stage

when an individuals reserves for dealing with a stressor are depleted

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75

DNA destruction

telomeres- protective caps on ends of DNA

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76

tend- and - befriend response

under stress, people, especially women often provide support to others and bond with and seek support from others

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77

psychophysiological illnesses

any sort of bodily response to psychological issues

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78

psychoneuroimmunology

how psychological, neural, and indicrine systems together affects the immune system and resulting health

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79

lymphocyte T

attack cancer celss, viruses and foreign substances

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80

lympocyte B

release antibodies that fight bacterial infections

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81

macrophage

big eater, identify, pursue, and ingest harmful invaders and worn out cells

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82

NK cells

“natural killer”- attack diseased cells such as those infected by viruses or cancer

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83

stress and colds

people who report higher levels of stress report more colds

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84

coronary heart disease

clogging of teh vessels that nourish the heart muscle

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85

friedman and rosenman- Type A

hardriving, impatient, verbally aggressive, anger prone

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86

friedman and rosenman- Type B

easy going and relaxed

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87

catharsis

idea that releasing aggressive energy relieves aggressive urges

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88

pessimism

when someone looks at the negatives of a stressor

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89

optimism

believes in positivity always

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90

excessive optimism/ optimism bias

toxic form of optimism in which an indivicual overlooks legitament obsticles

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91

oxytocin

social bonding hormone, tend to have greater amounts in optimists

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92

aerobic exercise

sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness. also helping to alleviate depression and anxiety

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93

medittion

reflective practice in which peope attend to current experiences in a non judgemental and accepting manner

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94

faith factor

religously active people live longer and are in better physical health then non religious people

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95

feel-good, do-good phenomenon

peoples tendency to be helpful when in a good mood

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96

positive psychology

martin seligman- created idea of positive psychology and the scientific study of human flourishing with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help communities and individuals thrive

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97

subjective well-being

self percieved happiness or satisfaction with life a

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98

daptation-level phenomenon

our tendency to form judgments relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experiences

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99

relative deprivation

the perception that one is worse off in comparison with those who they are comparing themselves

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100

personality

individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

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