Test 1 Theology

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The early Church found in favor of the Rigorist position, that the lapsi couldn't be forgiven for publicly denying Christ to save their own lives, and thus were damned. Their sin was "blasphemy against the Holy Spirit". 

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Theology

Study guide for first test -Made using quizzes from the semester and our class notes

79 Terms

1

The early Church found in favor of the Rigorist position, that the lapsi couldn't be forgiven for publicly denying Christ to save their own lives, and thus were damned. Their sin was "blasphemy against the Holy Spirit". 

False

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2

What was notable about St. Justin Martyr?

He was an apologist and the first intellectual to see history as twofold--divided between the secular and the sacred. 

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3

What was Hippolytus?

He was the antipope who became a saint after renouncing his claim and schism.

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4

What happened during the Great Persecution of Diocletian?

Over 200 bishops were martyred and he ordered the closing of all Christian churches and buildings.  

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5

What is the famous quote from Tertullian that involved blood?

"The blood of martyrs is the seed of Christians’’’", what he means by this is that when people are martyrs (witnesses) for their faith it inspires others to see why people are dying for this religion leading to their conversion.

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6

Define the term "apologist"

They were educated Christians who provided a defense and explanation for why Christian beliefs were correct and superior. 

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7

Define Martyrs

Literally means "witnesses".

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8

Define Confessors

Christians who weren't killed for their faith, but withstood prison and terrible tortures for it.

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9

Define Lapsi

Christians who renounced the faith or sacrificed to pagan gods during persecutions, but sought readmittance to the Church when persecutions ended.

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10

How did Arianism spread so quickly throughout the Roman Empire?

Arius taught his theology to sailors who spread it throughout the Mediterranean port cities, Arius was very clever, and persuasive, and likeable, and the Roman nobility and Roman army embraced Arianism

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11

What was the result of the Council of Nicaea with respect to Arianism?

Arianism was condemned

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12

What is the meaning of the term used to correctly describe the relationship between the Father and the Son in the Trinity?

"of the same substance"

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13

What was the problem with the term consubstantial?

it was used by a heretic - Paul of Samosata - to describe modalism

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14

True or false: Arianism was so popular and widespread that even some bishops began to believe it.

True

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15

Why did Constantine call the Council of Nicaea?

to settle the Arian crisis and have peace throughout the empire

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16

What did the Edict of Milan do?

made Christianity legal

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17

How did Arius attempt to solve the problem of explaining the Trinity?

he said the Father created the Son and the Holy Spirit

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18

When Constantine fought the battle at the Milvian Bridge, Christians were only 15% of the Empire's population. By his death, they accounted for 30%. 

True

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19

Self-sacrifice and renunciation of the things of the world in order to grow closer to Christ.

White Martyrdom

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20

Meaning "solitary" in Greek

Monachos

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21

Shedding one's blood for the Faith, to the point of death.

Red Martyrdom

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22

Saint noted for being the founder of monasticism in the East and the inventor of the hospital system.

St. Basil

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23

What does it mean to say that the emperor Julian was an "Apostate".  

He renounced the true Faith to follow a false one. 

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24

Which were parts of Julian's plan to destroy and persecute the Church?

Reorganizing paganism, marginalizing Catholics, and allying with the Jews. 

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25

Identify the person who said the following, "God was made man so that we might be made God."

St. Athanasius

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26

Why did the Apostate Emperor dislike Christians so much?

He blamed them for killing many of his many family members after the death of Constantine. 

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27

Saint noted for being the founder of monasticism in the West.

St. Anthony the Abbot (or St. Anthony of Egypt)

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28

Identify the person who said the following, "Mediocrity brings the Christian faith into discredit."

St. Basil

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29

Saint who helped convert St. Augustine, and was a mere catechumen when elected bishop by the people of Milan. 

St. Ambrose

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30

Vulgate

First Bible translated entirely into a single language.

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31

Exile

A fate faced by many holy bishops after the legalization of Christianity, when political rulers disliked what they said.

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32

Church Father

Early Christian leaders and writers known for orthodoxy, holiness, antiquity (1-8th century) and Church approval, often in the face of persecution.

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33

Caesaro-papism

Eastern notion that the emperor was equal to or above bishops in matters of faith.

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34

When Rome was sacked, some thought it was because of its return to the worship of pagan gods and goddesses

False

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35

Saint known for his skill with languages and for his temper and tendency to insult foes. 

St. Jerome

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36

Saint who used to be an elite soldier, but left that life after an encounter with Christ in the person of a beggar.

St. Martin

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37

This preacher said, "Love based on physical beauty belongs to unchaste souls. Seek instead for beauty of soul."


John Chrysostom

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38

When the city of Rome was sacked for the first time, many Christians, including priests and bishops, thought it might be a sign of the end of the world. 

True

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39

Sometimes the preaching of a bishop or pope turned the Emperor to repentance from evil, as in the case of Ambrose and Theodosius

True

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40

Saint called "Golden Mouthed" who gave practical homilies urging the rich to help the poor and concerning how to have good, faithful marriages and families. 

St. John Chrysostom

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41

A meeting of the world’s bishops to clarify or establish church teaching, teachings from these are the most authoritative.

Ecumenical council

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42

What is the greatest commandment

“You shall love the Lord your God, with all your heart, being, strength, and mind

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43

Who is this quote by “Those who sing pray twice”

St. Augustine of Hippo

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44

Who adopts the diocesan structure created by Diocletian

The church

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45

The church takes things from bad/Non-christian sources

True

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46

Excommunication

To be kicked out of the church; you can be readmitted after confession and penance

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47

Great medical care in the anchient world was provided by who

monks

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48

T or F Council of nicea killed arianism

false

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49

although monachos means “solitary” what happned to monastic orders

they became communities of brothers and sisters striving together toward holiness

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50

What is asceticism

involves giving up many conforts and luxuries

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51

Person who lives alone in the wilderness

Hermit

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52

Constantine wore his white bastismal gown until his death over what

the imperial purple

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53

Exile is a common punishment to saints and bishops for what

Opposing rulers doing bad things

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54

What is an apostate

someone who leaves the christian faith for a false one

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55

Gird your loins

Military analogy that means prepare for battle

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56

Light your lamps

Be a person of faith (faith is the light that will se you through this world’s darkness)

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57

T or F: Julian the last to try and undermine the by creating alernatives that looks like it

False

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58

A belief system that is often polytheistic and lacks central authority, different gods and godesses have cults dedicated to them

Paganism

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59

belief in one God

Monotheism

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60

Belief in many gods

Polytheism

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61

A group of people dedicated to a particular person/god who have devotional practices in common. Often they have secret practices. Some Saints did have these.

Cult

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62

How were bishops chosen in the anchient church

Priests and catholic laity chose them

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63

How are bishops chosen in the modern church

Pope choses from a list given by priests and fellow bishops

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64

How were saints selected in the anchient church

Chosen by public acclimation for their holy lives, often miracles happened at their time

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65

How are saints selected in the modern church

Selected after a long formal process of investingation

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66

How were popes selected in the anchient church

Laity and priests/deacons of Rome chose the Pope

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67

How were popes selected in the modern church

Selected by the college of cardinals after debate and prayer

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68

What are the conditions for papal infallibility

teaching on faith and morals, sitting on the chair of St. Peter, and must be affirming tradition.

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69

This group believed all material things were evil and only spiritual things were good. To this end they discouraged anyone from having children, promoting contraception and even abortion.

The Manicheans

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70

Identify the source of the quote, "Virtue is nothing without the trial of temptation, for there is no conflict without an enemy, no victory without strife."

St. Pope Leo the Great

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71

Group that denied Original Sin and believed humans could "earn" heaven by living lives that were "good enough". Many Muslim denominations hold similar beliefs today. 

The Pelagians

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72

What was one of the important ideas of Augustine's "City of God”?

That the "City of Man" encourages us to pursue selfish desires and worldly power or money instead of eternal happiness in heaven. 

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73

Means, "God-bearer", a title for Mary.

Theotokos

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74

A heretical belief that evil and good are equal and necessary to the structure of the universe.

Dualism

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75

Meaning "all-powerful". One of the characteristics of God.

Omnipotent

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76

From the greek word meaning "knowledge", the idea that possessing secret knowledge is what can save you. This was a common characteristic of early heresies.

Gnosticism

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77

The Council of Ephesus found that Jesus became divine as he aged, not that he was born fully divine and human.  This is why the Gospel said he "grew and wisdom and grace". 

False

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78

Heretical group founded by a bishop/patriarch that promoted believed Jesus' human and divine persons were different from each other.

The Nestorians

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79

A schismatic group that felt a priest's personal sins could prevent God's grace from coming to us through the sacraments, this group would even actively attack Catholics and throw a blinding solution in the eyes of travelers. 

The Donatists

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