Ancient World History and Geography Unit 2: Ancient India and China

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Confucius

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1

Confucius

a philosopher also known as Kong Fuzi who lived from around 551 BCE to 479 BCE during a time of unrest in China

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Confucius

he traveled the length of China observing events and seeking employment as a political counselor but had no success

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3

Confucius

this philosopher's students and followers compiled a book of his teaching, sayings, and ideas, which was called the Analects

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4

Confucius

he became a teacher to hundreds of students who sought his wise advice

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5

Confucius

this philosopher developed many ideas to end conflict because he lived during a time of unrest

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6

Confucius

this philosopher's sayings were studied all over China until the 20th century

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7

Confucius

he believed that the universe was created in a way that if humans act in harmony with its purposes, their own affairs would prosper

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8

Confucius

he developed the idea of the Five Constant Relationships

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9

Ashoka/Asoka

he was the greatest Indian ruler (and possibly the greatest ruler in general) ever

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10

Ashoka/Asoka

he ruled the Mauryan Empire from 269 BCE to 232 BCE

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11

Ashoka/Asoka

the Mauryan Empire flourished economically under this kind ruler

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12

Ashoka/Asoka

this ruler converted to Buddhism and used Buddhist ideals to rule, but did not force anyone to convert with him

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13

Ashoka/Asoka

this ruler set up hospitals for both people and animals

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14

Ashoka/Asoka

this ruler sent missionaries to introduce Buddhism to other regions of Asia

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15

Ashoka/Asoka

under this king, India became a major crossroads in a vast commercial network: the Silk Road

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16

Ashoka/Asoka

this king had edicts engraved in stone for the public to read

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17

Siddhartha Gautama

this person was also known as Gautama Buddha, or the Buddha

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18

(the) Buddha

enlightened one

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19

Siddhartha Gautama/(the) Buddha

this person was born in 563 BCE and created Buddhism

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20

Siddhartha Gautama/(the) Buddha

he created and believed in the Four Noble Truths

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21

Siddhartha Gautama/(the) Buddha

he created and believed in the Middle/Eightfold Path

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22

Rama

god-king of Ayodha

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23

Rama

eldest son of King Dasaratha and only child of Queen Kausalya

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24

Rama

he was supposed to be King Dasaratha's heir, but King Dasaratha had to crown Bharata king instead by Kaikeyi's wish

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25

Rama

he was exiled to the forest for fourteen years

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26

Rama

he saved his wife Sita after Ravana kidnapped her

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27

Rama

he questioned Sita's chastity, made her walk through fire, and abandoned her with Sage Valmiki to save his reputation

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28

Rama

he had two sons: Lava and Kusa

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29

Sita

Ravana kidnapped her, but Rama and co. rescued her

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30

Sita

she had her chastity questioned by Rama, had to walk through fire, and was abandoned with Sage Valmiki

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31

Sita

Rama's wife who gave birth to twins: Lava and Kusa

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32

Ravana

demon king of Lanka

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33

Ravana

kidnapped Sita after hearing of her beauty

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34

Ravana

Surpanakha's brother

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35

Queen Kaikeyi

Bharata's overprotective mother who believed that misfortune would befall her if Bharata wasn't crowned king

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36

Queen Kaikeyi

King Dasaratha's wife who called in two favors: crown Bharata king and exile Rama for fourteen years

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37

Bharata

Rama's brother who became king and secured the throne until Rama could come back

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38

Lakshmana/Laksmana

Rama's brother who went to the forest with him after he was banished and helped save Sita

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39

Surpanakha

Ravana's sister

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40

Surpanakha

a demoness who fell in love with Rama and informed Ravana of Sita's beauty

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41

Hanuman

he went to inform Sita of Rama's arrival, identifying himself as the messenger by showing Sita Rama's ring, but he was caught, had his tail set on fire, escaped, and then set fire to Lanka

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42

Qin Shihuangdi

name means "first Qin emperor" and was the first and last Qin emperor

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43

Qin Shihuangdi

an emperor who had lots of ambition and unified the Chinese world during his reign

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44

Qin Shihuangdi

this emperor's main concern was with the Xiongnu in the north

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45

Xiongnu

nomadic people in the vicinity of the Gobi who often raided Chinese territory

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46

Qin Shihuangdi

the emperor who started the building of the Great Wall of China

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47

filial piety

duty of family members to subordinate needs and desires to those of the male head of the family

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48

filial piety

in this system important to Confucianism, every family member had their place, and children had to respect and obey their parents

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49

Mandate of Heaven

a government theory that Chinese empires and dynasties ruled under

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50

Mandate of Heaven

this stated that the king was "chosen" to rule because of his talent and virtue, and was responsible for ruling with goodness and efficiency

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51

Mandate of Heaven

this was used to justify overthrowing of government because if the king did not rule effectively or failed to protect the people, under this, the people could overthrow him

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52

Mandate of Heaven

under this political theory, the king was expected to rule according to his Dao (the proper "Way")

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53

Indus Valley Civilization/IVC

earliest known civilization/empire to have indoor plumbing

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54

Indus Valley Civilization/IVC

this civilization/empire was the first to have centrally planned cities

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55

Indus Valley Civilization/IVC

this civilization/empire had a centralized government

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56

Indus Valley Civilization/IVC

in this civilization/empire, their homes had no outside windows, but had an indoor courtyard instead

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57

Indus Valley Civilization/IVC

this civilization/empire used baked mud bricks for most of their construction

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58

Indus Valley Civilization/IVC

in this civilization/empire, religion and government were closely linked and often utilized the same buildings

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59

Indus Valley Civilization/IVC

trade and farming were the most important industries in this civilization/empire

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60

Indus Valley Civilization/IVC

this civilization/empire had writing, but modern historians have been unable to decipher it

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61

Indus Valley Civilization/IVC

this civilization/empire ended mysteriously, but there is some evidence that there may have been a flood, earthquake, or change in the course of the river

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62

Indus Valley Civilization/IVC

this civilization/empire lasted from about 3000 BCE to 1500 BCE

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63

Indus Valley Civilization/IVC

this civilization/empire was centered around the Indus River

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64

Indus Valley Civilization/IVC

this civilization/empire contained the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro

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65

Aryan Civilization/Aryan Empire

during this civilization/empire, the Indo-European nomadic people of said civilization/empire came into India around the time of the disappearance of the Indus Valley Civilization

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66

Aryan Civilization/Aryan Empire

people from this civilization/empire were nomads

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67

Aryan Civilization/Aryan Empire

the leaders of people from this civilization/empire were caled rajas

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68

Aryan Civilization/Aryan Empire

in this civilization/empire, cattle were very important, and their word for cattle is the same as their word for money.

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69

Aryan Civilization/Aryan Empire

although people from this civilization/empire migrated into India with no written language, eventually they settle down and then formed the basis for what is now known as Sanskrit

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70

Aryan Civilization/Aryan Empire

this early civilization/empire created small kingdoms

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71

Aryan Civilization/Aryan Empire

this civilization/empire created the basis of the Vedic religions

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72

Aryan Civilization/Aryan Empire

this civilization/empire created the caste system

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73

Mauryan Empire/Mauryan Dynasty

this empire/dynasty had strong central rulers

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74

Mauryan Empire/Mauryan Dynasty

this empire/dynasty was able to take power because of the lack of central power (power vacuum)

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75

Mauryan Empire/Mauryan Dynasty

this empire/dynasty had religiously tolerant leaders such as Chandragupta and Ashoka/Asoka

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76

Mauryan Empire/Mauryan Dynasty

during the second half of this empire/dynasty, people were mostly Buddhist

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77

Mauryan Empire/Mauryan Dynasty

this empire/dynasty used the military to conquer at the beginning

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78

Mauryan Empire/Mauryan Dynasty

this empire/dynasty used secret police at the beginning

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79

Mauryan Empire/Mauryan Dynasty

this empire/dynasty had a regulated tax system

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80

Mauryan Empire/Mauryan Dynasty

during this empire/dynasty, the capital was at Pataliputra

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81

Mauryan Empire/Mauryan Dynasty

this empire/dynasty spread Buddhism

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82

Mauryan Empire/Mauryan Dynasty

this empire/dynasty lasted from approximately 324 BCE to 183 BCE

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83

Mauryan Empire/Mauryan Dynasty

this empire/dynasty decayed into smaller kingdoms because of internal dissent

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84

Zhou Dynasty/Zhou Empire

the longest-lasting Chinese dynasty/empire which lasted from 1045 BCE to 256 BCE

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85

Zhou Dynasty/Zhou Empire

during this empire/dynasty, the king was seen as the connection between Heaven and Earth

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86

Zhou Dynasty/Zhou Empire

during this empire/dynasty, the Mandate of Heaven was defined as a theory of government

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87

Confucius

he believed that leaders should be chosen based on merit and society should be orderly

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88

Shang Dynasty/Shang Empire

this empire/dynasty used oracle bones to communicate with gods, showing their history

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89

Shang Dynasty/Shang Empire

this empire/dynasty developed ancestor worship and believed in the afterlife

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90

Shang Dynasty/Shang Empire

this empire/dynasty developed bronze casting

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91

Shang Dynasty/Shang Empire

during this Chinese dynasty/empire, they developed their own writing

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92

Shang Dynasty/Shang Empire

this dynasty/empire was the 2nd dynasty

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93

Shang Dynasty/Shang Empire

this dynasty/empire lasted from 1750 BCE to 1045 BCE

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94

Qin Dynasty/Qin Empire

Qin Shihuangdi became the first emperor (also the last) of this empire/dynasty

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95

Qin Dynasty/Qin Empire

this dynasty/empire had a highly centralized goverment that organized thousands of workers

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96

Qin Dynasty/Qin Empire

an army of terracotta soldiers was created and found in a tomb from this dynasty/empire

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97

Qin Dynasty/Qin Empire

an early "Great Wall" was created during this dynasty/empire to keep the Xiongnu nomads out

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98

Qin Dynasty/Qin Empire

this empire/dynasty lasted from 221 BCE to 206 BCE

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99

Han Dynasty/Han Empire

this dynasty/empire was one of the longest lasting dynasties/empires, from 202 BCE to 220 CE

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100

Han Dynasty/Han Empire

this dynasty/empire was fairly peaceful, large, and economically successful

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