US History Exam (copy)

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1

anasazi

culture that lived in southwestern US

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2

inca

culture that lived in peru

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3

songhai and ghana

2 cultures that lived in west africa

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4

aztec, maya, and olmec

3 cultures that lived in mexico/central america

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5

mississippian

culture that lived in the midwest US

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6

1619

what year did the House of Burgesses first meet in Virginia?

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7

Bartolome de Las Casas

who advocated for the rights of the Native Americans and later Africans?

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8

the ability to sail into the wind as well as being pushed by the wind

which advantage did the caravel give the Portuguese as they sailed on voyages of exploration?

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9

New Mexico and the Southwest, up into Kansas

a quick route to China/India

furs, which were popular in Europe

where did Vazquez de Coronado explore?

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10

trade goods at a better prices

what was the primary objective of the portuguese when they were sailing to west africa in 1450-1480

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11

joint stock company

business venture where investors share profit and loss (ex. Virginia Company of London)

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12

dutch

which european country founded what is now New York

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13

William Penn

founder of Pensylvania

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14

separatists

believed the Church of England could not be purified; groups that settled in Plymouth were (what kind of religion)

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15

an english expedition forced Governor Stuyvesant to surrender

New York became a colony when

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16

Florida and the South, eventually finding the Mississippi River

where did Hernando de Soto explore

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17

corn, beans, squash

3 plants in 3 sister farming

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18

Marco Polo

European who became famous for publishing account of his travels to China and back

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19

followed animals herds on the Berlin Straight from Russia to Alaska

what was the most likely way humans arrived in the Americas

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20

gold

what were de Soto and Coronado looking for in their expeditions

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21

Spain bc they wanted a fast passage to China/India to take out the Middle Man and make goods cheaper

which country founded Christopher Columbus' voyages and why

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22

grew tobacco, which was popular in England

how did Virginia become profitable to colonists

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23

Hernan Cortes

spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and captured land around them

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24

coureurs de bois

'runners of the woods' or traders who when into Canada to trade directly with the native americans

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25

Mayflower Compact

type of government in Boston, MA colony; stressed that they would all listen to laws made through this system

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26

middle - trading ports

south - tobacco and traded

north - farmed land and settled

how was the economy different in the Northern, Middle, and Southern colonies

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27

north - most definite and conservative

middle - diverse or changed over time

south - didn't come for religion, more for money

how was the religion different in the Northern, Middle, and Southern colonies

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28

middle - leader/founder governed

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29

north - leader/founder governed, religion played a part

middle - leader/founder governed

south - first gov't (House of Burgesses), most connected to England

how was the politics/gov't different in the Northern, Middle, and Southern colonies

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30

both - tried to Christianize the natives

spanish - took more land, natives = slaves, came to make a profit, most men came

british - less land, some British got along with natives while others didn't, came for religion, whole families came

compare Spanish and British colonies (people who came, motivation, interacted with natives, etc.)

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31

wanted to find fast route to China to make goods cheaper by taking out Middle Man, more land/gold/trade with others to get wealth just been exposed to new goods & new technologies (caravel, astrolobe)

what made the europeans so eager to explore other part of the world; goal?

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32

same - harsh and cruel, bad working conditions

different - America based on race and life-long while Africa could be punishment, work off debt, or prisoner of war that would not last forever

how was western african slavery (b/f contact with Europeans) different from and similar to American slavery

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33

large missions which suppressed their native believes

what did the Spanish create in American Southwest which angered Pope and the Pueblo (native Americans)

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34

good military base to check the English and Spanish

why did France settle Louisiana

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35

france controlled the New France land so people weren't fleeing to this new land; the new land was still controlled by France

why did New France's population grow so slowly

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36

puritans

wanted to purify the Church of England

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37

charter

certificate of permission from a king

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38

john winthrop

founder of Massachusetts Bay Colony

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39

Pennsylvainia cultivated peace with local indians

how was pennsylvania different from virginia

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40

armada - left english with more boats and resources which INCREASED interest in colonization efforts reformation - it led to lots of colonists trying to flee and get religious freedom

what effect did the Protestant Reformation and the defeat of the Spanish Armada have upon English colonization efforts

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41

location = protected from storms, abandoned (don't anger indians), Indian tribe nearby was kind and helpful; one downfall could be the religion (separatists)

pros/cons of a colony = plymoth

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42

albany plan of union

document that called on the colonies to united and cooperate under british rule

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43

stamp act

tax on printed materials imposed on American colonists by Parliament

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44

committees of Correspondence

groups for formed after the boston massacre to promote colonial unity

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45

pontiac's rebellion

indian uprising in 1763

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46

boston tea party

incident in which colonists destroyed cargo to protest British trade policies

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47

boston massacre

conflict in which occupying British soldiers killed 5 protesting colonists

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48

first continental congress

meeting at which colonial delegates planned to boycott British goods and petition the king

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49

proclamation of 1763

british order that colonial settlers remained east of the Appalachian Mountains

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50

george washington

new continental army commander, virginian who led british troops to an attack on Fort Duquesne

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51

loyalists

Colonists who supported the British during the war

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52

declaration of independence

proclaimed the colonies were free from British rule

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53

valley forge

location of washington's winter camp in 1777-1778

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54

yorktown

Final battle of the Revolutionary War, Cornwallis surrenders

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55

french and indian war

british colonist's name for conflict that began in 1754

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56

Articles of Confederation

first governing document for the new American nation - 1781

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57

a country's economic wealth could be measured by the amount of gold and silver in its treasury

mercantilists believed

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58

Seven Years War

the french and indian war was part of what larger conflict

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59

heavy taxes and large debts

Daniel Shay's motivation for rebellion against the Massachusetts government

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60

raise money to pay for military forces needed for colonial defense

British Parliament passed the Stamp Act to

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61

republic

a government in which citizens rule through people they elect

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62

they had no representatives in Parliament

colonists objected to the Stamp Act because

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63

a colonial congress to request repeal, a boycott of British goods, violence in towns, and wearing homemade clothes to reduce imports

ways the colonists protested against the Stamp Act

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64

rejecting British rule altogether

Thomas Paine's Common Sense inspired colonists by

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65

the British lost twice as many troops as the Patriots did

why might the Battle of Bunker Hill be considered a Patriot victory?

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66

Ceded far more territory to the United States than the colonies had won in the war

the Treaty of Paris

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67

protect Indian lands from greedy hunters, trappers, and fur traders

purpose of Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787

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68

American loyalty to the crown

What did the Olive Branch Petition profess?

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69

brought the colonists much-needed aid and a formal alliance with France

why was the Battle of Saratoga a key victory for the Americans

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70

they feared the people would come to think those were their only rights

why did Madison and the other Federalists oppose creating a Bill of Rights?

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71

indentured servants who were freed after several years of service

how were African workers treated in the early 1600s

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72

Wanted revenge against the british

why did France come to America's aid in the Revolution

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73

caribbean

where were the vast majority of enslaved Africans sent

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74

middle passage

journey that slaves made from Africa to the Americas

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75

seize colonial weapons and leaders

what were the British soldiers who attacked Lexington and Concord trying to do?

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76

eliminated

how did slavery change in the North after the Revolution

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77

they wouldn't be represented bc number of votes would depend on population

why did small states oppose Madison's Virginia Plan

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78

counted 3 out of 5 slaves as population - 3/5 compromise

how was the conflict over counting slaves resolved at the Constitutional Convention?

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79

Legislative, Judicial, Executive

3 branches of gov't as created by Constitution

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80

supported it as it was (no Bill of Rights needed)

Federalist's position on Constitution

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81

opposed it bc they wanted a Bill of Rights

Antifederalist's position on Constitution

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82

salutary/benign neglect

mother country doesn't interfere with colony

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83

helped them, no taxes or interfering with trading = prosper, colonists like this (still considered themselves British, but liked not being told what to do)

how did salutary/benign neglect affect the colonies' development?

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84

Declaration/Articles/Constitution all say that all men are created equal and have rights, but not specifics bc else south wouldn't have joined US slavery was abolished in the north but south didn't (thought it was necessary)

how was slavery affected by the War for independence, what did documents declare that was in contradiction

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85

each state got 1 vote, regardless of population gave to much power to states and didn't have enough power in the gov't to functiongave to much power to states and didn't have enough power in the gov't to function one state vetoed taxes, which caused lots of problems with other countries let one state veto which meant no law was easy to pass

in what ways was the Articles of Confederation too weak to handle the nation's problems?

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86

made both sides happy and represented people best in their gov't, very contrasting sides could agree enough to make 1 country, without it small and big states and North and South would've never agreed.

how did compromise play a critical role in the drafting of the Constitution

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87

sir edmund andros

who was sent to England by the colonists during the controversy over the Dominion of New England

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88

challenged old ways of thinking

describe the enlightenment

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89

south

what region produced tobacco, rice, and indigo

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90

french lost almost all territory, British gained land, natives lost their influence bc they couldn't negotiate

result of French and Indian was (gain/loss territory)

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91

mercantilism

all goods from the colonies go to the Mother country

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92

mother country prospers, colonies just survive, made colonists very unhappy so they started to smuggle and think for themselves

how did mercantilism affect the English colonies

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93

how were North and South colonies different

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94

they were breaking the law

what did loyalists believe about Patriots

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95

tensions between white settlers and Native Americans increased

how did the frontier was fought during the American War for Independence affect the relationship between white settlers and Native Americans

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96

unsuccessful bc Britain did not listen and kept forcing troops and taxes on them came together in meetings (First Continental Congress) to try to accomplish peace with Britain while not giving up rights, asked that Stamp Act be removed and other petitions too

what did colonists do in years leading up to the battles at Lexington and Concord to try to precent armed conflict, why unsuccessful

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97

it defeated a few of the generals who were planning an attack, this was the battle where Spain and France (especially) gained interest in the colonies and wanted to help they win the war

why was the Battle of Saratoga one of the most important battles in the war for independence

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98

judicial review

power to determine if laws are Constitutional or not

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99

loose construction

expanding gov't power to things not explicitly in the Constitution

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100

cabinet

group of people who headed the major federal departments

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