APUSH (Final)

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First Americans

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1

First Americans

the people who came to Americas via the Bering Straight; in 6000 BCE Indians began raising crops, maize, which helped encourage population growth, esp. in present day Mexico

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2

Aztec Empire

Tenochtitlan was the capital; trading routes were established throughout the empire; used tribute

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3

tribute

payment (taxes)

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4

maize

major crop throughout Central and North America; found in Mississippi Valley

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5

Eastern Woodlands

villages built around maize fields, also hunted and gathered; women were in charge of crops and played instrumental roles in community affairs; iroquois were matriarchal society

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chiefdom

one individual claiming top power

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7

paramount chiefdom

many communities with own local chiefs banded together under one ruler

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matriarchal society

power based on female families

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9

Great Plains and Rockies

hunted Buffalo; lack of natural resources made many Indians nomadic; horse introduced by Europe drastically changed life of Plains Indians

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10

Arid Southwest

based on agriculture (maize) and built elaborate irrigation systems (Pueblo Indians)

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Pacific Coast

Chinooks were strong warriors, relied heavily on fishing; built elaborate canoes

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12

patterns of trade

many Indians traded w/ each other throughout the Americas; trade fairs b/w nomadic Navajos and Pueblos in SW; maize would be traded for meat, furs; trade united regions, enriched diets, enhanced economics and allowed powerful people to set themselves apart with luxury items

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13

sacred power

animism; indians respected animals they hunted by performing rituals; women and men interacted differently with forces: women grew crops, maintained hearth, home village while men hunted and went to war

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animism

religion associated with nature

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15

animists

believed that natural world was suffused with spiritual power, interpreted dreams and visions to understand the world

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16

hierarchy and authority of Western Europe

European families were patriarchal; females gave ump many rights when married

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17

primogeniture

eldest son inheriting most of wealth; later encouraged immigration to colonies

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18

peasant society

poor individuals, mostly farmers, made up most of immigrants to America; half of the children died before 21

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19

expanding trade networks

merchant cities began to grow drastically; guilds helped regulate trade

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20

republics

states that had no prince or king but instead were governed by merchant coalitions

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21

civic humanism

ideology that praised public virtue and service to state and in time profoundly influenced European and American conceptions of gov't

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22

guilds

artisan commercial transactions

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23

Renaissance

cultural transformation from 1300 to 1450 involving arts and learning

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24

myths, religions and holy warriors

Roman Catholic Church had tremendous power in Western Europe, individuals involved in heresies were persecuted

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25

Christianity

grew out of Jewish monotheism, Jesus Christ himself was divine

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26

Islam

religion whose followers considered Muhammad to be God's last prophet

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27

heresies

ideas inconsistent with Christianity

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28

crusades

in AD 1096 and 1291, these were undertaken by Christian armies to reverse Muslim advance in Europe and win back the holy lands where Christ lived

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29

Protestant Reformation

-Martin Luther and his 95 Theses which protested the sale of indulgences

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30

-John Calvin and Predestination

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31

-England became Protestant nation

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32

-it weakened the strength of Catholicism in Europe

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33

Counter Reformation

-triggered by Protestant Reformation

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34

-sought change from within and created new monastic and missionary orders, including Jesuits (soldiers of Christ)

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35

empires, kingdoms, ministrates

-most of African Slave Trade was based out of West Africa, esp. along coastline b/c diseases were in interior

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36

-Kings and Princes regarded as divine

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37

-Ghana, Mali and Songhai Empires used extensive trade routes and used the military to control trade routes and get gold

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38

-The Spirit World: Islam spread trade routes in Africa; many Africans still practiced versions of animism and were polytheistic

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39

trans-Saharan trade

primary avenue of trade for West Africans before European traders connected them to Atlantic empires, it carried slaves and gold to North Africa in exchange for salt and other goods

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40

portuguese expansion

portugal had extensive role in exploration and African Slave Trade; trading posts were established in West Africa

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41

Prince Henry of Portugal

founded center for oceanic navigation, designed better-handling vessel, the caravel

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42

Bartholomeu Dias

rounded Cape of Good Hope, southern tip of Africa

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43

Vasco de Gama

reached East Africa and India, discovered present day Brazil

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44

Sonni Ali

ruler of powerful Songhai Empire

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45

Why did Europeans have little luck exploring the interior of African continent?

  1. diseases- malaria

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46
  1. interior was well defended

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47

African Slave Trade

-slavery was widespread throughout Europe and Africa

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48

-slaves were used on sugar plantations, particularly yin Carribeans

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49

-in mid-16th cent., African Slave trade expanded drastically and used in South America

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50

Sixteenth century incursions

reconquista and inquisition

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51

reconquista

Spanish Catholics tried to get rid of Muslims in Europe

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52

inquisiton

against alleged Christian heretics

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53

conquistadores

Spanish conquerors

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54

Juan Ponce de Leon

explored coast of Florida

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55

Vasco Nunez de Balboa

1st European to see Pacific Ocean

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56

Christopher Columbus

believed Atlantic Ocean was narrow channel of water, separating Europe from Asia, financed by Ferdinand and Isabella

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57

Hernan Cortes

led 600 men to defeat the Aztecs at Tenochtitlan; many of the Aztecs were defeated by the disease smallpox

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Francisco Pizarro

defeated the Incas in Peru

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effect(s) of the Spanish invasions

disease and war killed many Indians

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60

sedentary

with individual ownership of land and intensive agriculture

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61

semisedentary

with central fields and villages occupied seasonally

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62

nonsedentary

hunter-gatherers

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63

Chesapeake colonies

Made up of virginia and maryland

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64

Relied heavily on tobacco

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Used indentured servants greatly in the 17th century

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Encroached onto Indian land after tobacco exhausted their soil

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Chattel slavery

Slaves are property

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Status of the child would be determined based on the MOTHER not the father (contradictory to English law/patriarchal societies)

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Children born to slave owners and slave mothers were automatically slaves

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70

Encomienda system

Harsh but profitable system

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Spanish conquistadors received land from the crown

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Based almost entirely on Indian slave labor

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Casta system

Catholicism and the Spanish language were required.

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74

Most➡️least power:

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75

Peninsulares: pure spaniards born in Spain

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Creoles: pure spaniards born in the Americas

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Mestizos: Spanish + native ancestry

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Mulattos: European + African ancestry

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Zambos: African + native ancestry

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80

Colombian exchange

Exchange of goods, people, disease, and ideas between Europe, Africa, and the Americas (cultural diffusion)

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81

New crops introduced to Europe (potato and maize)

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Horses introduced to Indians

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83

Native population decreased greatly (up to 90% in some areas)

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84

England/Spain in the 16th century

Spain had been very powerful, but England was rising up and began to built its navy up in the 16th century to challenge Spain

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85

Mercantilism

Purpose: benefit the mother country by exporting more goods than importing

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86

Plantations in the Americas

Grew due to increased demand for sugar and tobacco

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87

As Indian populations decreased, African slave labor was introduced

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88

Jamestown

  1. Was a joint stock company (investors shared in the profits and losses of the colony. Like a business for profit) ➡️ became a royal colony (owned and run by the king) in 1624 where colonists had to pay taxes to support the church of England

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The men wanted to get gold

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Didn't give the men access to fresh water

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Tobacco eventually became a major cash crop

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92

House of Burgesses formed (first representative government in the US. It could make laws and impose taxes, but the governor and the Company council in England could veto its acts). Burgesses eventually took the vote away from landless freemen (1/2 of adult white men)

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93

Governor: Berkeley

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94

After the Indian War of 1622, the king and his ministers appointed the governor and a small advisory council, known as the privy council, which had to approve all of the House of Burgesses' legislation.

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95

Royal colonies

An appointed governor

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96

An elected assembly

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97

A formal legal system

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98

An established Anglican church

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99

Owned and controlled completely by royalty

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100

Proprietary colonies

Colonies where a single family owns them like personal property with full control and ownership rights (including rights normally given only to the state)

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