AP Psychology Midterm

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experimental psychology

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206 Terms

1

experimental psychology

experiment with the behavior of humans and animals including motivation, memory, perception, and attention

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Humanistic Psychology

Study of the whole person through the eyes of the observer and person doing the behaving

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Behaviorism

manipulating observable behavior

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4

Functionalism

mental life and behavior based on someones environment

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5

Cognitive Psychology

scientific study of mind and mental function, including learning, memory, attention, perception, and reasoning

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Structuralism

school of psychology that used introspection to study the structure of the human mind

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7

Evolutionary psychology

attempts to explain useful mental and psychological traits as the functional products of natural selection

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8

Levels of Analysis

biological, psychological, sociocultural focuses of psychology

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9

Natural Selection

how living organisms pass on surviving traits to their offspring

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10

socio-cultural psychology

influence of culture and environment on behavior

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11

Nature - Nurture Debate

Nature involves the genetic make up of us and nurture involves the environment we are raised in

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12

Psychology

study of mental functioning and behavior

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13

Counseling Psychology

maintains a focus on facilitating personal and interpersonal functioning across the life span

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14

Industrial Organizational Psychology

use psychological principles and research methods to solve problems in the workplace and improve the quality of life

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15

Developmental Psychology

conduct research on age related behavioral changes

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16

Educational Psychology

studying the mental processes involved in learning

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17

Clinical Psychology

studies and assess psychological disorders in various people

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18

Psychiatry

medical doctors who specialize in psychological disorders (can prescribe drugs)

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19

Surveys

practical way to gather data on attitudes, beliefs, and experience of a large groups of people

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20

Longitudinal Studies

study of the same group of people at regular intervals over long periods of time

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21

Cross-Sectional Studies

study the same questions in groups of similar people all at different stages in their lives

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Positive correlation

when one aspect studied increases so does the other

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Negative correlation

one aspect studied increases the other decreases

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24

Independent variables

aspect manipulated by researchers

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dependent variables

remain undisturbed by researcher throughout an experiment

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Experimental groups

subjects in experiment who have the variable changed

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Control groups

subjects in experiment who do not have the variable changed

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Single blind study

experiments where the research subjects do not know if they are in the control or experimental group

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Double blind study

experiments where the researchers and the research subjects do not know if they are in the control or experimental group

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Placebo

a substance that has no therapeutic effect, used as a control in testing new drugs.

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31

Correlation

a connection between two variables, not that one thing causes the other

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32

Naturalistic Observation

watching and taking notes of a subject in an undisturbed environment

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Case Study

intensive study and observation of one person or group

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34

Illusory Correlations

imagined and non-existent correlations our brains create that statistic disprove

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35

Validity

if an experiment test what it is supposed to test and measures what it is supposed to measure

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36

Mode

most frequently occurring scores

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37

Median

midpoint or 50th percentile of the scores

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38

Mean

total sum of all of the scores divided by the number of scores

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reliable

results can be applied to the larger population as a whole

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40

Standard Deviation

measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.

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41

Range

difference between the largest and smallest values

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42

Parietal Lobe

sensory input of touch and movement and processing of vision

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43

Temporal Lobe

auditory receptors and processors- Controls memory for sight, music and hearing

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44

Brain Stem

Brains oldest and innermost region- controls basic bodily functions, breathing, moving and drinking

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Occipital Lobe

it controls sight, reading, and visual images

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Corpus Callosum

It is the bridge between the left and right parts of the brain

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Cerebellum

Little Brain that Enables nonverbal learning, memory, judging time and modulating motions

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Hippocampus

Short term memory, long term memory, navigation and spatial orientation

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Frontal lobe

Controls Language, movement, plans, judgement, and personality

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50

Thalamus

Relay center for senses

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51

Hypothalamus

homeostasis, body temperature, link between endocrine system

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52

Motor Cortex

the part of the cerebral cortex in the brain where the nerve impulses originate that initiate voluntary muscular activity.

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53

Sensory Cortex

It's in charge of all senses, sight, sound, touch, taste, smell

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Medulla

controls heartbeat and breathing

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Pons

coordinates movement

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56

Reticular Formation

Neuron network which goes from the spinal cord through the thalamus and enables arousal

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Amygdala

impacts aggression and fear

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Association Areas

all areas of the cerebral cortex that do not receive sensory information or output motor functions

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Dendrite

bushy fibers that receive information and conduct it to cell body

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Axon

Lengthy fibers that pass information out to other neurons

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Myelin Sheath

layers of fatty tissue that insulates and speeds impulses through the Axon

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Action Potential

brief electrical charge that travels down a neuron in response to a stimulus

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Resting Potential

The cell is at homeostasis with its ions balanced

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Refractory Period

positively charged ions are pumped back into the Axon to restore homeostasis

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Central Nervous System

Brain and spinal cord - the body's decision maker

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Peripheral Nervous System

Make up of the bodies nerves -gathers information and transmits information throughout the body

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Nerves

electrical cables formed by axons- link the CNS with the PNS

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Somatic Nervous System

voluntary control of our skeletal muscles

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Autonomic Nervous System

controls our glands and the muscles of our internal organs- heartbeat and digestion

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Sympathetic nervous system

arouses and expends energy- accelerates heartbeat and slows digestions

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71

Parasympathetic Nervous System:

conserves energy as it calms you down- decreases heartbeat and blood sugar

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72

consciousness

our awareness of ourselves and our environment.

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73

circadian rhythm

the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle.

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REM (rapid eye movement) sleep

rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur.

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75

hallucinations

false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.

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76

insomnia

recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.

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narcolepsy

a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.

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sleep apnea

a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.

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79

night terrors

a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, these occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered.

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80

hypnosis

a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.

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81

psychoactive drug

a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods.

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depressants

drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.

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opiates

opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.

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84

stimulants

drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.

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85

Ecstacy (MDMA)

a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.

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86

hallucinogens

psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.

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87

LSD

a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide).

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88

THC

the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.

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89

Reasons for Sleep

sleep protects us (evolutionary), helps us to recuperate (brain consolidates memories), helps restore body tissues, plays a role in the growth process

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90

Stage 1 of sleep cycle

5-15 minutes, Slowed breathing, irregular brain waves, hallucinations, sensation of falling or floating

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Stage 2 of sleep cycle

20 minutes, More relaxed than stage 1, brain waves begin to lengthen

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92

Stage 3 of Sleep cycle

deep sleep , brain generates slow delta waves, hard to wake

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93

sensation

the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

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94

perception

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information helping us make sense of the world around us

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95

selective attention

The ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input

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96

inattentional blindness

failure to see visible objects when our attention in directed elsewhere

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97

change blindness

Failing to notice changes in the environment/scenes, even when you appear to be attending to the information

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98

Cocktail party effect

the ability to attend to only one voice among many

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99

absolute threshold

the smallest possible strength of a stimulus that can be detected in half the time

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difference threshold

smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus that can be detected (just noticeable difference)

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