Multicultural Issues Exam #1

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Tags and Description

114 Terms

1

minority

indicates a group that holds less power (not just quantity of people)

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2

culture

a set of factors from multiple dimensions that describes how a person or group experiences and engages in life

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3

cultural responsiveness

to take a client’s perspectives, beliefs, and values into consideration during all aspects of providing services

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4

unconscious bias

an automatic response outside of our awareness due to a lack of critical reflection

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5

destructiveness

lack of empathy for anyone that is different

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6

incapacity

inability to engage with different cultures

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7

blindness

inability to see differences among or between cultures

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8

pre-competence

recognizes they need more information/skills to interact with others

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9

proficency

ability to hold cultural diversity in high regard and help make others more culturally responsive

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10

cultural responsiveness

fusing past experiences and the experiences of others to react to situations with those experiences in mind

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11

microsystem

the context directly related to the child that has bidirectional influence on the child (family, siblings, peers)

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12

exosystem

the structures that indirectly affect the child by influencing the microsystem and relationships of the child (parent’s work, school board, extended family, media, neighborhoods)

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13

macrosystem

the most removed level of external influence that indirectly affects the family of the child (laws, history, culture, economics, social conditions)

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14

micro level

internal influences at the level of the individual (cognitive development of a child)

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15

meso level

external influences among or within group (interactions between immigrants and US citizens)

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16

macro level

the farthest level of external influences at the level of the society (interaction among different world nations)

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17

globalization

the process of increasing interdependence among countries through fluid borders and technological advances

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18

health disparities

occur when there are differences in the health outcomes between different groups of people (associated with economic/social/environment disadvantages)

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19

health condition

body structures and their functions and daily living activities

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20

contextual factors

factors that facilitate or hinder health outcomes and participation in daily life activities

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21

macro practice

the ability to incorporate work at the societal level rather than the individual level

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22

culture

includes visible aspects (rituals, traditions, religion, language, style)  and invisible aspects (values, beliefs, assumptions, worldviews)

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23

belief

the idea that something is true/real or not true/real (subjective)

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24

values

ideas derived from cultural histories and shared experiences that demonstrate a group’s ideals of the way things should be

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25

assumption

an unquestioned belief that does not require proof

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26

cultural responsiveness

the ability to respond to a client’s cultural beliefs and behaviors and adapt your care to align with their culture

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27

ethnicity

a social group with shared history, nationality, and traditions

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28

race

biological attributes and ethnicity associated with a culture or nationality

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29

racism

racial prejudice (a negative pre-judgement) and power (domination over a group)

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30

institutional racism

the privilege of some groups and disadvantage of some groups based on race that is often unnoticed unless you are negatively affected (college admissions policies, hiring practices, school systems)

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31

structural racism

persistent disparities among groups across multiple systems that results in some groups profiting and others paying the cost (healthcare, transportation, schooling, housing)

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32

racial erasure

color-blind tactics that exclude race from the equation and therefore suggests that racism does not exist

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33

linguistic racism

discrimination based on the language that a person or group speaks (people have the right to speak their own language)

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34

international communication project

an advocacy project based on the premise that communication is vital to life and a human right (provide more opportunities for people who cannot communicate)

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35

social theory

roles that social structures play in the world as society changes and social behavior is organized

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36

ideology

the widespread idea of what is normal

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37

conceptual framework

concepts and their definitions as well as how they are related to one another creating a cognitive map that can help with decision making

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38

premises

statements that some belief is based upon (if this statement is true, this conclusion is also true

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39

positivism

what people are observed doing is more important than what they think/believe/desire

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40

interpretivism

we should approach scientific inquiry from an inductive process

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41

critical perspectives

we examine and understand reality within historical, economic, political, and cultural contexts

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42

power distance

the extent to which people of a cultural group believe there should be unequal distribution of power in their society

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43

uncertainty-avoidance

how comfortable a culture is with unstructured contexts and uncertain outcomes

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44

individualism-collectivism

how members of a cultural group see themselves as individuals or as part of a larger group

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45

masculinity-femininity

the types of gender characteristics that are valued predominately within a society/cultural group

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46

long term orientation-short term orientation

how people think about goals and challenges

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47

indulgence-restraint

how groups control or delay desires/happiness

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48

VISION model

a model consisting of 6 components for SLPs that are working with family partnerships

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49

pedagogical framework

a framework for teaching a multicultural course in CSD that focuses on awareness, knowledge, and skills

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50

Hierarchy of Cultural Knowledge and Cultural Growth Profile

a model used to organize knowledge systematically from basic cultural stereotypes to advanced cultural values

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51

Conceptual Framework for Responsive Global Engagement

a conceptual framework for providing responsive services in a culturally diverse and globalized world based on the critical social science perspective

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52

human rights

the privileges that all human beings have regardless of their social station, identity, or background

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53

human rights approach

incorporating core values like fairness, respect, equality, dignity, and autonomy, into clinical practice, education, and scholarship

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54

affirmative actions

actions used to correct inequitable outcomes without changing structures

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55

transformative actions

actions that focus on dismantling systemic factors to eliminate injustice at the source

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56

distributive justice

justice focused on redistributing human, material, and financial resources, and access to services

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57

recognition justice

justice that recognizes, appreciates, and values cultural and identity differences

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58

equity

everyone has what they need to make use of available resources and opportunities regardless of their cultural/economic/ethnic/gender/location/race/religious background

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59

equality

treating everyone the same and making sure everyone has the same rights, resources, and opportunities

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60

intersectionality

the compounding of various forms of inequalities and inequities experienced by a person

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61

power

the capacity of groups of people to exert control over their own lives even if there is opposition from others

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62

physical violence

acts of violence that were sanctioned and carried out by the arm of the law (police and courts) and supported by state governments

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63

structural violence

social arrangements embedded in political and economic organization that put individuals in harm’s way and cause injury to people

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64

symbolic violence

the power differential among social groups based on ideologies (unquestioned beliefs and views of the world)

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65

manufactured consent

the ability to make people believe and act in ways that are in opposition to their own good

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66

privilege

unearned opportunities and advantages given to or made available to certain groups based on identity and maintained by unequal power

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67

organization of work

what work is done and who does that work

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68

macroaggression

institutional and societal practices and structures that harm target groups

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69

microaggressions

interpersonal interactions that are hostile, derogatory, or negative to a target person or group

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70

microassaults

racism, sexism, or heterosexism carried out by individuals toward other individuals (deliberate attitudes against a group of people)

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71

microinsults

racialized, gendered, or sexualized demeaning comments and behaviors

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72

microinvalidations

negation of the feelings, perceptions, and people that experience racism, sexist, and gendered microaggressions

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73

microinterventions

actions that can be used to diffuse, challenge, or neutralize micro/macroaggressions

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74

microaffirmations

actions used to affirm a person’s humanity, identity, reality, and worth that are designed to make a person feel valued and supported

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75

microprotections

actions that family and friends might use to help a person they care about understand the realities of racism while showing pride in their heritage

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76

microchallenges

actions designed to disarm microaggressions by stopping or challenging it

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77

langauge

a symbolic system that has meaning and is also a piece of culture

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78

linguistic relativity

a criticized theory that focuses on the effect of linguistic differences on thought (language impacts how we conceptualize ideas)

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79

communication

the ability to engage in an exchange of ideas with other people that is successful when a person is able to get their point across

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80

language

a rule governed system used to combine sounds into words and words into sentences that changes based on what language you are using

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81

paralinguistics

anything that occurs alongside of language and has been referred to as voice cues because it can provide cues about communication intentions

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82

kinesics

gestures, body movements, postures, and facial expression that are used in communication and can occur with spoken language or independently

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83

proxemics

how a person unconsciously structures space

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84

high and low context cultures

a way to differentiate cultural group by how much context is taken into consideration during communication

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85

language varriation

a variety of language that is associated with a socially defined group (this is another term for dialect)

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86

social networks

a web of connections among individuals that connect through various contexts and settings like work/school/church

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87

communities of practice

a group of people who come together to solve a common problem

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88

simultaneous language acquisition

when a child develops two languages from birth

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89

sequential bilingualism

when a child develops a second language later in life after developing their first language

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90

acculturation

when members of a cultural group decide to maintain cultural values/traditions/languages but also incorporate the dominant culture of the area in some ways

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91

assimilation

when members of a cultural group give up their values/traditions/languages to become fully apart of the dominant culture

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92

innatist

a second language is acquired unconsciously, similarly to how the first language was learned

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93

one-way communication theory

learning a second language required a clear input

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94

two-way communication theory

conversation in the second language must occur during meaningful activities

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95

african american english

a rule-governed language system that is a variation of English

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96

linguistic racism

any system or practice of discrimination/segregation/persecution/or mistreatment of a language based on race or ethnic group

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97

lexicon

the words and phrases of a language

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98

linguistic culture

the beliefs and assumptions that people have about languages they speak, and others speak

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99

code mixing

when an individual uses elements from two languages in the same utterance or stretch of conversation

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100

intra-utterance code mixing

when an individual uses elements from two languages in the same utterance

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