HDFS 2100 Exam 3

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Benefits of Marriage


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Benefits of Marriage

Healthier lifestyle Longer life expectancy More satisfying sex life More wealth/economic assets Happier/safer environment for children

Trends in Black Marriage

Higher income More conflict Men benefit more than women

Components of Successful Marriage

Independent and mature Love each other and selves Enjoy being together and apart Know selves Established in occupations Assertiveness Foundation in friendship Enlightened self-interest


Expressing oneself in a direct and positive manner, component of successful marriage.

Law of Enlightened Self-Interest

When you focus on your partner's needs, they tend to focus on yours; component of successful marriage.

Marriage Encounter

Largest marriage education program (1970s).

The Healthy Marriage

Marriage education initiative funded at the federal level (2006).

Stages of Premarital Education

Premarital inventory Training Discussion group Continued enrichment

Premarital Inventory

Couples should assess and receive feedback from a trusted source about it.

Driver's 3 Types of Marriage

Validating Volatile Conflict-avoiding

Gottman's Divorce Predictors

Emotional disengagement Four Horsemen Flooding Bad memories

Four Horsemen

Developed by the Gottman Institute; criticism, contempt, defensiveness, and stonewalling.

Family of Origin

Family in which an individual was raised throughout childhood.

Vitalized Couples

Strength in communication, conflict resolution, sexual relationship, and finances.

Harmonious Couples

Strength in roles and the ability to resolve conflicts.

Conventional Couples

Strength in spiritual beliefs, roles, and support networks.

Conflicted Couples

Limited strengths, require growth.

Devitalized Couples

Strength in seeking marital therapy.

Role of Self-Forgiveness

Leads to compassion towards self when mistakes are made and provides more marital satisfaction.

Role of Sacrifice

Expresses overall commitment and leads to mutual trust.

Role of Prayer

Forgiveness and a relationship/communication with God lead to satisfaction (amen).

Federal Healthy Marriage Initiative

Attempt to promote healthy marriage throughout a more diverse population, focusing on minority couples specifically.


Said that married/cohabiting parents have a higher degree of happiness than single parents.

Factors of High Marital/Parenting Quality

More education More financial resources Sharing responsibilities Support from family/friends Faith Shared beliefs Sexual satisfaction Generosity

Characteristics of Successful Adoption

Exploring: Open/healthy expectations Demonstrating: Stability, quality, flexibility Creating: Openly acknowledging/communicating situation Understanding: Intensity of commitment/possible issues

Child-Free Alternative

Growing in popularity due to raised costs, wage gaps, and expectations placed on women.

Accelerated-Consensus Trajectory

Same political/personal reproduction beliefs.

Mutual-Negotiation Trajectory

No prior discussion of reproductive beliefs, therefore, the decision is being made together.

Unilateral-Persuasion Trajectory

One partner with stronger reproductive beliefs influences the other who does not have an opinion.

Bilateral-Persuasion Trajectory

Both partners have strong, opposing reproductive beliefs.

Parental Support

Amount of affection a parent exhibits.

Parental Control

Amount of flexibility a parent uses in disciplining child.

Democratic Parenting

Clear rules and expectations; self-reliant, cheerful, and high-achieving child.

Authoritarian Parenting

Rigid rules and strict expectations; conflicted, irritable, unstable, and unhappy child.

Permissive Parenting

Allows child's preferences to take over; impulsive, rebellious, and under-achieving child.

Rejecting Style Parenting

Pay little attention to child's needs; immature and psychologically challenged child.

Uninvolved Parenting

Allow child's preferences to prevail as long as parent is uninterrupted; solitary, withdrawn, and under-achieving child.

Behaviorist Theory

Operate from learning theory/reinforcement perspective.

Bidirectional Effects

Both the parents effect the child and the child effects the parents.

Psychodynamic Theory

Places importance on a positive emotional environment.

Organismic Theory

Strongly encourages developmentally appropriate toys and activities.

TLC Discipline Approach

Time; must be spent with child Limits; if set higher, expectations should be higher too Care; must be expressed

Positive Discipline

Focuses on teaching responsible behavior; shows honor and love to the child.

Corporal Punishment

Use of physical force as behavioral control; is ineffective and leads to further behavioral problems.

Cascading Circumstance

Stress builds to a point where parents use harsh punishment.

NICHD Study of Early Childcare

Higher quality leads to better outcome Time spent in childcare matters Different impacts depending on age Parents/family are more influential than childcare


How parents coordinate and support each other.

Single Mothers

Higher levels of stress, lower income.

Absent Father Phenomenon

Limited initiative of father figure to act as a provider, protector, and caregiver. Leads to poor outcomes.