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Benefits of Marriage
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Healthier lifestyle Longer life expectancy More satisfying sex life More wealth/economic assets Happier/safer environment for children
Trends in Black Marriage
Higher income More conflict Men benefit more than women
Components of Successful Marriage
Independent and mature Love each other and selves Enjoy being together and apart Know selves Established in occupations Assertiveness Foundation in friendship Enlightened self-interest
Expressing oneself in a direct and positive manner, component of successful marriage.
Law of Enlightened Self-Interest
When you focus on your partner's needs, they tend to focus on yours; component of successful marriage.
Largest marriage education program (1970s).
The Healthy Marriage
Marriage education initiative funded at the federal level (2006).
Stages of Premarital Education
Premarital inventory Training Discussion group Continued enrichment
Couples should assess and receive feedback from a trusted source about it.
Driver's 3 Types of Marriage
Validating Volatile Conflict-avoiding
Gottman's Divorce Predictors
Emotional disengagement Four Horsemen Flooding Bad memories
Developed by the Gottman Institute; criticism, contempt, defensiveness, and stonewalling.
Family of Origin
Family in which an individual was raised throughout childhood.
Strength in communication, conflict resolution, sexual relationship, and finances.
Strength in roles and the ability to resolve conflicts.
Strength in spiritual beliefs, roles, and support networks.
Limited strengths, require growth.
Strength in seeking marital therapy.
Role of Self-Forgiveness
Leads to compassion towards self when mistakes are made and provides more marital satisfaction.
Role of Sacrifice
Expresses overall commitment and leads to mutual trust.
Role of Prayer
Forgiveness and a relationship/communication with God lead to satisfaction (amen).
Federal Healthy Marriage Initiative
Attempt to promote healthy marriage throughout a more diverse population, focusing on minority couples specifically.
Said that married/cohabiting parents have a higher degree of happiness than single parents.
Factors of High Marital/Parenting Quality
More education More financial resources Sharing responsibilities Support from family/friends Faith Shared beliefs Sexual satisfaction Generosity
Characteristics of Successful Adoption
Exploring: Open/healthy expectations Demonstrating: Stability, quality, flexibility Creating: Openly acknowledging/communicating situation Understanding: Intensity of commitment/possible issues
Growing in popularity due to raised costs, wage gaps, and expectations placed on women.
Same political/personal reproduction beliefs.
No prior discussion of reproductive beliefs, therefore, the decision is being made together.
One partner with stronger reproductive beliefs influences the other who does not have an opinion.
Both partners have strong, opposing reproductive beliefs.
Amount of affection a parent exhibits.
Amount of flexibility a parent uses in disciplining child.
Clear rules and expectations; self-reliant, cheerful, and high-achieving child.
Rigid rules and strict expectations; conflicted, irritable, unstable, and unhappy child.
Allows child's preferences to take over; impulsive, rebellious, and under-achieving child.
Rejecting Style Parenting
Pay little attention to child's needs; immature and psychologically challenged child.
Allow child's preferences to prevail as long as parent is uninterrupted; solitary, withdrawn, and under-achieving child.
Operate from learning theory/reinforcement perspective.
Both the parents effect the child and the child effects the parents.
Places importance on a positive emotional environment.
Strongly encourages developmentally appropriate toys and activities.
TLC Discipline Approach
Time; must be spent with child Limits; if set higher, expectations should be higher too Care; must be expressed
Focuses on teaching responsible behavior; shows honor and love to the child.
Use of physical force as behavioral control; is ineffective and leads to further behavioral problems.
Stress builds to a point where parents use harsh punishment.
NICHD Study of Early Childcare
Higher quality leads to better outcome Time spent in childcare matters Different impacts depending on age Parents/family are more influential than childcare
How parents coordinate and support each other.
Higher levels of stress, lower income.
Absent Father Phenomenon
Limited initiative of father figure to act as a provider, protector, and caregiver. Leads to poor outcomes.