Outcome 2 - Nutrition, metabolism and food models

studied byStudied by 3 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

What is the definition of food?

1 / 103

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

104 Terms

1

What is the definition of food?

Refers to any editable material that supports growth, repair and maintenance, of the body. It also protects the body from infection and disease.

New cards
2

What is the definition of nutrition?

Refers to the process by which body utilizes food for growth, maintenance and healthy living.

New cards
3

What is the definition of nutrients?

Found in foods we eat, provides nourishment essential for maintenance of life and for growth. No food by itself has all the nutrients needed (except breast milk).

New cards
4

What are the six categories of nutrients?

  • Carbohydrates (including fibre )

  • Fats

  • Protein

  • Vitamins

  • Minerals

  • Water

New cards
5

What are the five functions of water?

  • To transport energy, waste , hormones and antibodies.

  • To dilute waste products.

  • To lubricate surfaces and membranes.

  • To help regulate body temperature.

  • To be involved in all chemical reactions in the body.

New cards
6

How much fluid should athletes consume prior to a event?

They should consume 200-600mls of fluid.

New cards
7

How much fluid should athletes consume during a event?

They should consume 500-1000mls of fluid per hour of the event.

New cards
8

How much fluid should athletes consume after a event?

Replace 150% of water loss.

1kg weight loss = 1 litre fluid loss.

New cards
9

What are macronutrients?

Are this that are needed in large quantities (tens or hundreds grams) everyday.

New cards
10

Examples of macronutrients include-

  • Carbohydrates (including fibre)

  • Proteins

  • Fats

  • Water

New cards
11

What are micronutrients?

Are those that are need in minute/small quantities (micrograms or a best milligrams).

New cards
12

Examples of micronutrients, include -

  • Vitamins

  • Minerals

New cards
13

What are the functions of carbohydrates ?

  • To provide fuel (glucose) for energy.

  • Regulates the metabolism of fate and protein.

  • The nervous system relies on them for energy in order to function.

  • They are transported through the bloodstream.

New cards
14

Examples of carbohydrates, include -

  • Rice

  • Pasta

  • Cereals

  • Fruits (bananas)

  • Potatoes

New cards
15

What are the functions of protein?

  • Muscles construction and repair.

  • Promoting glycogen resynthesis (remaking).

  • Playing an important role in immune function.

  • Transmission of nerve impulses.

  • Preventing sport anaemia (low iron).

  • Protein can be used as a secondary source of energy to carbohydrates.

New cards
16

Examples of animal protein, include -

  • Red meat.

  • Fish

  • Eggs

  • Dairy products

New cards
17

Examples of plant protein, include -

  • Nuts

  • Lentils

  • Tofu

  • Beans

  • Spinach

New cards
18

What are the functions of fats?

  • Development and maintenance of cell membranes (e.g. - blood and soft tissue).

  • Assists in the absorption, transport and storage of nutrients, gases and waste into and out of cells.

  • Provides a layer of protection around major organs.

  • Assists in keeping the body warm.

New cards
19

There are 4 types of fats, these include -

  • Monounsaturated fats

  • Polyunsaturated fats

  • Saturated fats

  • Trans fat

New cards
20

Good fats, include -

  • Monounsaturated fats

  • Polyunsaturated fats

New cards
21

Bad fats, include -

  • Saturated fats

  • Trans fat

New cards
22

Examples of good fats (monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats), include -

  • Avocado

  • Olive oil

  • Nuts

  • Peanut butter

  • Omega-3

  • Soy oils

New cards
23

Examples of bad fats (saturated fats and trans fats), include -

  • Full cream milk

  • Cream

  • Cheese

  • Fried food

  • Pastries

  • Pies

  • Cakes

  • Margarine

New cards
24

What is the definition of GI? (Glycemic index)

Carbohydrate foods are ranked from 0-100 according to how quickly they effect the bloods glucose levels.

New cards
25

A low GI rating is between the numbers -

0-55

New cards
26

Foods that have a low GI rating (0-55)

  • Spaghetti Bolognaise

  • Porridge

  • Apples

  • Firm Bananas

New cards
27

A medium GI rating is between the numbers -

55-70

New cards
28

Foods that have a medium GI rating (55-70)

  • Oranges

  • Brown Rice

  • Toast

  • Carrots

  • Oatmeal

New cards
29

A high GI rating is between the numbers -

70-100

New cards
30

Foods that have a high GI rating (70-100)

  • White bread and honey sandwich

  • Very ripe banana

  • Snakes

  • Jelly beans

New cards
31

What are vitamins?

They are elements of food that are vital for life. They cannot be made in the body and must therefore be taken with food.

New cards
32

What are the importance of vitamins?

  • They protect the body against infections.

  • Assist in regulating body functions.

  • Assist in metabolism.

New cards
33

What are the functions of vitamin C?

Formation of protein, collagen and the absorption of iron.

New cards
34

In what foods is vitamin C found in?

  • Fruits

  • Vegetables

  • Dark green leaves

New cards
35

What are the functions of vitamin A?

Maintains vision, skin health, reproductions and bone & teeth growth

New cards
36

In what food is vitamin A found in? (animal sources)

  • Butter

  • Eggs

  • Milk

  • Liver

New cards
37

In what food is vitamin A found in? (plant sources)

  • Dark green leafy vegetables.

  • Tomatoes

  • Mangoes

New cards
38

What are the functions of vitamin D?

Helps in the hardening of bone by enhancing absorption of calcium.

New cards
39

In what foods is vitamin D found in?

  • Fish

  • Liver

  • Oils

  • Eggs

  • Cheese

  • Butter

  • Sunlight

New cards
40

Having a deficiency in vitamin D may lead to -

Osteoporosis

- Bone and joint pain.

New cards
41

What are the functions of vitamin B₁₂?

Building proteins in the body by enhancing absorption of calcium.

New cards
42

In what foods is vitamin B₁₂ found in?

  • Dairy products

  • Shellfish

  • Eggs

  • Poultry

New cards
43

Having a deficiency in vitamin B₁₂ may lead to -

Anemia

  • When your blood produces a lower then normal amount of healthy red blood cells.

New cards
44

What are the functions of vitamin B₉?

Helps in the functions of DNA and new blood cells.

New cards
45

In what foods is vitamin B₉ found in?

  • Asparagus

  • Spinach

  • Broccoli

  • Oranges

  • Bananas

  • Strawberry’s

  • Legumes

New cards
46

Having a deficiency in vitamin B₉ may lead to -

Neural tube defects

- Brain / Spinal cord doesn’t develop normally.

New cards
47

What are minerals?

Inorganic chemical elements which are resent throughout the body in varying amounts. Like vitamins, they cannot be made in the body and must be taken with food.

New cards
48

Why are minerals essential?

  • Assist in metabolism.

  • Forms part of the structure of body tissues such as bones, teeth, nails, blood, nerves and tissues.

  • Assists in fighting infections.

New cards
49

What are the functions of Iron ?

Essential in the formation of blood, involved in the transports and storage of oxygen in the blood.

New cards
50

In what foods is Iron found in?

  • Red meat

  • Green leafy vegetables

  • Nuts

  • Whole grains

New cards
51

Having a deficiency in Iron may lead to -

Anemia

  • When your blood produces a lower then normal amount of healthy red blood cells.

New cards
52

What are the functions of calcium?

Mineralization (hardening) of bones and teeth, regulator of many of the body’s biochemical process (blood clotting).

New cards
53

In what foods is calcium found in?

  • Dairy products

  • Nuts

  • Fish

  • Green leafy vegetables

New cards
54

Having a deficiency in calcium may lead to -

Osteoporosis

  • Bone and joint pain.

New cards
55

What are the functions of fluoride?

Involved in the formation of dental enamel and prevents dental cavities: Involved in the formation of teeth & skeleton and prevents osteoporosis in old age.

New cards
56

In what foods is fluoride found in?

  • Fluoridized water

  • Toothpaste

New cards
57

Having a deficiency in fluoride may lead to -

  • Dental cavities

  • Osteoporosis (bone and joint pain).

New cards
58

What are the functions of Iodine ?

Part of two thyroid hormones. Iodine regulates growth, physical and mental development.

New cards
59

In what foods is Iodine found in?

  • Dairy products

  • Seafood / Seaweed

  • Eggs

  • Bread

  • Iodised salt

New cards
60

Having a deficiency in Iodine may lead to -

  • Hypothyroidism

    • When the thyroid gland is underactive and fails to secrete enough hormones into the bloodstream.

New cards
61

What are the three commonly seen sports drinks

  • Hypertonic

  • Hypotonic

  • Isotonic

New cards
62

What are hypertonic drinks and what are they used for?

  • Has a higher concentration of fluid, sugar and salts then the blood stream.

  • Large doses of carbohydrates.

  • Used as a recovery drink.

  • Often contains add proteins.

New cards
63

Disadvantages of hypertonic drinks?

The drinks can cause dehydration as the body has to move water from the bloodstream into the intestine.

New cards
64

What are hypotonic drinks and what are they used for?

  • Has a lower concentration of fluid, sugars and salt than blood.

  • Rapid rehydration.

  • Pre-hydration on shorter workouts, long rides or in hot weather, when you need a drink to rehydrate quicky and efficiently. Absorbed fast into the blood stream.

New cards
65

Disadvantages of hypotonic drinks?

They focus on rehydration and therefore do no provide maximum carbohydrates (energy).

New cards
66

What are isotonic drinks and what are they used for?

  • Has a similar concentration of fluid, sugars and salt to blood.

  • Carbohydrates releases.

  • Used in shorter duration or high intensity workouts, when you want carbohydrates during endurance events.

New cards
67

Disadvantages to isotonic drinks?

They have high levels of sugars, sweeteners and additives which can cause stomach cramps and bloating.

New cards
68

Similarities between hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic drinks are?

They are all sports drinks and are used for hydration

New cards
69

Similarities between hypertonic drinks and isotonic drinks are?

Both are a source of carbohydrates.

New cards
70

What is metabolism?

  • Metabolism involves a constant process of making energy, via chemical reactions, from the foods we eat.

    • A process that begins conception and ends with death.

    • It is a vital process for all life form, not just humans and is needed to do everything from moving to thinking, to growing.

    • If metabolism stops we die.

New cards
71

How does the process of metabolism work in humans?

  • When people and animals eat plants, they take in the energy from the plants (in the form of sugar), along with other vital cell-building chemicals.

  • The body's next step is to break the sugar down so that the energy that is released can be distributed and used as fuel by the body's cells.

    • When we take in food we take in energy in the form of sugar that is broken down so that energy can be released.

    • Food → Digestion → Energy

New cards
72

What is BMR?

The rate at which a persons body “burns“ energy in the form of calories, while at rest.

New cards
73

What does BMR stand for?

Basal Metabolic Rate

New cards
74

Factors that may influence BMR -

  • Genetics - BMR is inherited.

  • Health problems - illness/injury where extended rest is needed.

  • Exercise - Fitness/Muscle.

  • Body composition - The amount of lean muscle and fat tissue will affect metabolism.

    • Muscle goes up and so does your BMR

  • Age

  • Growth - During childhood and adolescence are high BMR periods.

  • Body size - Bigger the body, higher the BMR.

New cards
75

What is the difference between Metabolism and BMR

Metabolism is the constant process of making energy whereas BMR is the rate at which the body burns energy.

New cards
76

Foods that may alter metabolism

  • Avoiding to much alcohol.

  • Drinking water.

  • Eating enough protein.

New cards
77

Eating enough protein

Studies show that after you eat a protein rich meal (chicken or fish) your metabolism may increase by 30%.

New cards
78

Avoiding to much alcohol

It can stimulate your appetite and lower your metabolism.

New cards
79

Drink water

  • To burn energy your body needs water and a lot of it.

    • At least 2 litres a day.

New cards
80

Who developed the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE)?

Federal government initiative.

New cards
81

What is the aim of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE)?

To reduce the short and long term consequences associated with nutritional imbalance.

New cards
82

What are the 5 food groups of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE)?

  • Vegetables, legumes and beans.

  • Grain foods.

  • Fruits.

  • Meats.

  • Milk/dairy products.

New cards
83

Foods in the vegetable, legume and beans group

  • Pumpkin

  • Onions

  • Beans

  • Kidney beans

  • Lentils

  • Chickpeas

  • Broccoli

New cards
84

Foods in the grains group

  • Bread

  • Rice

  • Cereal

  • Pasta

New cards
85

Foods in the fruit group

  • Bananas

  • Apples

  • Strawberries

  • Blueberries

  • Pears

New cards
86

Foods in the meat group

  • Chicken

  • Lamb

  • Fish

  • Beef

New cards
87

Foods in the milk/dairy products group

  • Butter

  • Milk

  • Cream

  • Ice cream

New cards
88
<p>Advice that is shown outside the AGHE poster</p>

Advice that is shown outside the AGHE poster

  • Drink plenty of water

  • Enjoy a wide variety of nutritious foods from all the five food groups each day.

  • Use small amounts of oils, butters and margarines.

  • Sometimes and in small amounts foods with lots of fat, sugars and salt.

New cards
89

Two disadvantages of AGHE

  • Doesn’t say the serving size.

  • Doesn’t specify portion size.

New cards
90

How is AGHE promoted in youth?

  • Colourful

  • Visual images

  • Pictures of different foods

  • Clearly shows five different food groups

  • Includes hydration - water

New cards
91

Who developed the HSRS?

The federal government.

New cards
92

What is the aim of HSRS?

To promote healthy eating throughout the Australian community.

New cards
93

The four risk nutrients

  • Saturated Fats

  • Sodium (salt)

  • Sugars

  • Kilojoules (energy)

New cards
94

The four protective nutrients

  • Dietary Fibres

  • Protein

  • Proportion of fruits and vegetables.

  • Nuts and legume contents.

New cards
95

Two advantages to the HSRS

  • You can easily compare similar products to determine which is healthier.

  • Easy to interrupt.

New cards
96

Two disadvantages to the HSRS

  • Not all foods have it so you can’t compare all foods.

  • Has to be the same category of food that your comparing.

New cards
97

How HSRS is promoted to youth

  • Its simple

  • Easy to see

  • There’s an app you can use to scan the barcode and get the health star rating even when the package doesn’t have a rating on it.

New cards
98

HSRS stands for

The health star rating system.

New cards
99

AGHE stand for

Australians guide to healthy eating

New cards
100
<p>Which section of the AGHE is highlighted?</p>

Which section of the AGHE is highlighted?

Fruits

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 35 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard83 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard61 terms
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 264 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(6)
flashcards Flashcard28 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard51 terms
studied byStudied by 41 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard120 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard38 terms
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)