History Exam 3

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Samuel Slater

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1

Samuel Slater

Businessperson/Inventor; created water powered mill

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2

Robert Fulton

Businessperson/Inventor; tested the steamboat by going up the Hudson River

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3

Nicholas Roosevelt

Businessperson/Inventor; invested in the steamboat.

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4

Elias Howe

Businessperson/Inventor; created the sewing machine

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5

Charles Goodyear

Businessperson/Inventor; vulcanized rubber which made ponchos then tires

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6

John Deere

Businessperson/Inventor; created the steel plow in 1837

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7

Eli Whitney

Businessperson/Inventor; created the cotton gin and helped Simeon North develop interchangeable parts

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8

Simeon North

Businessperson/Inventor; helped Eli Whitney develop interchangeable parts

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9

Thomas Crapper

Businessperson/Inventor; plumber who created the ballcock which prevents the toilet from overflowing

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10

Crawford Long

Businessperson/Inventor; discovered anesthesia

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11

WTG Morton

Businessperson/Inventor; dentist who first used anesthesia for an operation

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12

Sylvester Graham

Businessperson/Inventor; created the graham cracker

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13

Henry Steinway

Businessperson/Inventor; created pianos; German name was Heinrich Steinwig

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14

Levi Strauss

Businessperson/Inventor; made pants for gold miners; now called Levi's

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15

Samuel Morse

Businessperson/Inventor; created the telegraph and Morse code

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16

Francis Scott Key

Songwriter; wrote Star Spangled Banner

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17

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Writer; wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin - included everything bad that happened to slaves

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18

Thomas Jefferson

Politician/Judge

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19

John Marshall

Politician/Judge

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20

Salmon P. Chase

Politician/Judge

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21

Robert Livingston

Politician/Judge

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22

Aaron Burr

Politician/Judge

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23

James Madison

Politician/Judge

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24

James Tallmadge

Politician/Judge; Senator of New York

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25

William Henry Harrison

Politician/Judge

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26

Andrew Jackson

Politician/Judge

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27

James Monroe

Politician/Judge; served 2 terms of presidency basically unopposed

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28

John C. Calhoun

Politician/Judge; chosen as Secretary of War (not good idea); from South Carolina; goes back to SC and became Senator

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29

Henry Clay

Politician/Judge

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30

John Quincy Adams

Politician/Judge; secretary of state during Monroe's presidency

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31

Martin Van Buren

Politician/Judge; political ranking and part of the kitchen cabinet

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32

Roger B. Taney

Politician/Judge; Chief Justice of the Court -> used as leverage by Jackson so the money can be placed in state banks; worse Chief Justice and incompetent

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33

Zebulon Pike

Explorer

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34

Oliver Perry

Soldier

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35

Pawtucket, RI

Slater created a water powered mill here

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36

National Road

Goes from Baltimore, through Philadelphia, to Vandalia (Illinois)

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37

Steamboat

Much easier for farmers to get supplies and sell goods

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38

White Americans West

1800 - 7% of White Americans West of Appalachians 1820 - 25% West of the Appalachians and Mississippi

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39

The Great American Desert

The area north of Missouri like the Dakotas, Iowa, Michigan, etc; said it wasn't good land to cultivate

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40

Era of Good Feeling

Everything looks good on the outside

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41

Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)

Spain gives us Florida. Monroe was asking Spain to buy Florida while Andrew Jackson was invading Florida

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42

Panic of 1819

Basically can be considered a Depression; includes land speculation and tighten credit

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43

Land Speculation

business owners/speculators buy the land instead of allowing the farmers to buy. Farmers go to the speculators and the speculators gain money by raising the price causing the farmers to buy loans

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44

Tighten Credit

too many loans without pay. Interest rates were reasonable a the time. Call in people with loans and some farmers and businesses lose their land

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45

Missouri Compromise

an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories; created by Henry Clay

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46

Monroe Doctrine (1820)

Says if anyone invades those states, then they will start a war

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47

Election of 1824

Jackson – 99 Electoral Votes: JQ Adams – 84; Crawford – 41(Secretary of the Treasury); Clay – 37

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48

Election of 1828

Democratic Republicans; National Republicans; Mudslinging; Jackson - 54% popular, 178-83 electoral

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49

Spoils System (20%)

Created by Jackson; replaces everyone in the Federal System; Jackson said to not put someone in the office for too long or they will "spoil"

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50

Kitchen Cabinet

Jackson hardly called on the Cabinet, so the Kitchen Cabinet was created where people were saying Jackson was planning in secret in the kitchen of the White House (not true)

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51

Pocket Veto

indirect veto of legislation by refusing to sign it; Jackson stuck it in his pocket (desk drawer) instead of signing or vetoing it until the legislation thing expires

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52

Nullification Crisis

Doesn't have to do with Jackson personally, but with Congress; South Carolina will nullify the 1828 and 1832 tariff

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53

Chief Black Hawk

Lead a big opposition about the government leading them out

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54

Removal Act (1830)

Created because the Indians were not being moved west of the Mississippi fast enough; became federal issue instead of state

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55

Cherokee

Civilized people: schools, written constitution, mills, newspapers; some had plantations and slaves; they sued instead of fighting back and John Marshall declared the Indian Removal Act as unconstitutional, but they are forced to move anyways

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56

Trail of Tears

The road the Indians traveled when being forced to Oklahoma

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57

Seminole War (1835-1842)

Rooted out most every Indian in Florida

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58

Cleared land

100 million acres east of the Mississippi cleared from the Indians moving; 32 million acres of land in Oklahoma cleared for Indians to live

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59

Soft Money

people who want to issue lots of paper money (current status) as to not run out of money; against national bank because they don't print enough money

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60

Hard Money

people who want only coins and no paper money; against national bank because they print paper money

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61

Whigs

Anti-king party

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62

Election of 1836

Jackson decided to step down and not take his 3rd term in office, survived assassination attempt; Martin Van Buren – 170 Electoral, 50.9% Popular (Problem: he’s not Jackson); Whigs – 124 Electoral

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63

Panic of 1837

Try to buy land, but the bank/economy crashes, loans are recalled, businesses crash, etc.

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64

Treasury System

Creates treasury places in states to place money; similar to national banks

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65

Election of 1840

Martin Van Buren runs again, and the Whigs unite; William Henry Harrison (Whig) wins but dies a month later from pneumonia, so John Tyler become president (Whig - Democrat)

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66

Creole

Slave ship taken over by slaves on the way to America; sailed to the Bahamas, so now stated as free as British states were slave free

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67

Webster-Ashburton Treaty

Solved the Canada border issue; Webster - US Secretary of State; Ashburton - British Foreign Minister

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68

Population of Americans

1800 - 5 million 1820 - 10 million 1840 - 17 million

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69

Population of New York City

1828 - 150,000 1860 - 800,000

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70

Urbanization

population of over 10,000 1820 - 6% 1840 - 10 % 1860 - 20%

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71

Immigration

1815-1860 - 5 million European Immigrants 1860 - 25% Foreign-Born

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72

Ghettos

Ethnic community where Irish would hang out with Irish and speak Irish

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73

Native Americans

Back then meant those who were born in America

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74

Order of the Star-Spangled Banner

aka. Know Nothings; Political party anti-immigrants

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75

Erie Canal (1817-1825)

Created by New York and dug/built by hand; Transportation costs down 90% from canals

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76

Tom Thumb

the little train that couldn't

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77

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (1830)

First Railroad (BO Railroad); went along the national road

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78

Railroad Progression

1836 - 1,000 Miles of Track 1840 - 3,000 1860 - 30,000 30 million acres of land

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79

Clipper Ship

Merchant ship from the 19th century that plied global routes and ferried cargo and passengers

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80

Power Loom (1816)

Water wheel to spin cotton into thread and make cloth

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81

Second National bank (1816)

Created to stabilize the economy

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82

Factory System

Created to do work all in the same place; Lowell System

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83

Lowell System

Factory system for single women

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84

Average Work Week

16 hours/day; 6.5 days per week (104 hours/week); Only off for church

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85

Unions

Pro-workers; wanted women to have shorter work weeks; cut down on child labor; strikes

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86

Union Associations

National Trade Union - 300,000 members (1835) Factory Girls' Association

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87

Sewing machine (1846)

created by Howe; cuts down the price of shirts; later used in making shoes

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88

Rags to Riches

people who started poor and ended up rich; e.g., Andrew Carnegie

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89

Poor

if you couldn't make ends meet and needed help

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90

Deserving Poor

people who couldn't work

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91

Undeserving Poor

people who could work, but didn't; mainly immigrants because no one would give them a job

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92

Middling Class

the people in between

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93

Wheat

Number 1 crop and export until cotton took over

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94

Cyrus McCormack

Mechanical Reaper in 1834; cuts down crops and allows more crops to be reaped at a time

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95

Cotton

1839 - Cotton #1 US export 1860 - Cotton 50% of Value of US exports

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96

Telegraph

created by Morse in 1844; could transmit messages quickly and notify that the train is late

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97

South

Upper - tobacco growers Lower - cotton growers Everyone moves to the lower south

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98

Slaves in South

1820 - 36% owned slaves 1860 - 25% owned slaves 3% owned more than 10 slaves less than 1% owned more that 20 slaves

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99

The Peculiar Institution

The term used for the slavery system in the south

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100

Free Blacks

150,000 free blacks in the south ~100,000 free blacks in the north Free, but they couldn't testify in a jury or vote

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