MIS - Exam #1

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Computer

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132 Terms

1

Computer

A machine that accepts data as input, processes data without human intervention using stored instruction, and outputs information

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Source Code (Program)

Must be translated into object code consisting of binary 0s and 1s (input to the complier)

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Object Code

Created by complier, binary digits (output of the compiler)

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Garbage in, garbage out (GIGO)

If input data is erroneous, the information provided by the computer is also erroneous

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Hardware components

physical devices (keyboards, monitors, and processing units)

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Software Components

Programs written in computer languages

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Computer performs three basic tasks

arithmetic operations, logical operation, & storage and retrival operations

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Central Processing Units (CPU)

Computers can either have a single processor or multiprocessors

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Bus

link between devices connected to the computer

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Disk drive

peripheral device for recording, storing, and retrieving information

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CPU case

enclosure containing the computer’s main components

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Motherboard

main circuit board containing connectors for attaching additional boards

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speed, accuracy, storage, and retrieval capabilities

Computer draw their power from 3 factors

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Speed

rate at which a computer performs instructions

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Millisecond

1/1,000 of a second

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Microsecond

1/1,000,000 of a second

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Nanosecond

1/1,000,000,000 of a second

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Picosecond

1/1,000,000,000,000 of a second

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Accuracy

computer’s usage of values close to the true values, degree of accuracy is critical in many computer applications

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Storage

saving data in a computer memory

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retrieval

accessing data from memory

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Bits

what data is stored in

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American Standard code for information interchange (ASCII)

data code for text files, PC applications, and the internet

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1 bit

a single value of 0 or 1

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8 bits

1 byte or character

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Input, Output, Memory

To use a computer and process data, three major components are needed

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Input Devices

Send data and information to the computer (keyboard, mouse, barcode reader, etc.)

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Output Devices

Receive and displays the results from the computer (head phones, printer, speakers, etc.)

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Main memory

stores data and information, directly accessed by the CPU, usually volatile

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Secondary memory

stores data and information, nonvolatile, serves as archival storage

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Random Access Memory (RAM)

Volatile memory, in which data can be read from and written to (Cache RAM - stores. recently accessed memory)

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Read-only (ROM)

nonvolatile, data can be read but cannot be written to the memory, typically stores BIOS information, and the computer system’s clock

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Cloud Storage

Online storage and backup of data, commonly involves multiple virtual servers, usually hosted by third parties, customers usually buy or lease storage space based on needs

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Storage Area Network (SAN)

dedicated high-speed network consisting of both hardware and software

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Network-attached storage (NAS)

Network-connected computer dedicated to provide file-based data storage services to other network devices

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Server

computer and all the software for managing network resources and offering services to a network

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Software

the programs that run a computer system

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System Software

Programs for operating the hardware components and the application software (what you want the computer to do) (Microsoft Windows)

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Application Software

Programs employed by end users to perform specific tasks (use to run the machine) (Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Access)

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Operating System Software

Set of programs for controlling and managing computer hardware and software

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Supervisor Program

Responsible for controlling all other programs in the OS

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Kernal

Program at the core of an operating system, connects the application software to the hardware components, controls everything that occurs in the system

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Application Software

Commercial software or software developed in house; used to perform a variety of tasks on a personal computer (zoom, google docs, etc.

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Machine Language

first generation of computer languages, consists of a series of 0s and 1s representing data or instructions

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Assembly Language

Second generation of computer languages, higher-level language than machine language

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High-level languages

third-generation of computer languages

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Fourth-generation Languages (4GLs)

Uses macro codes replacing several lines of programming, commands are powerful and easy to learn

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Fifth-generation Languages (5GLs)

use artificial intelligence technologies, designed to facilitate natural conversations between an individual and the computer (siri, google)

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Database

collection of related data that is stored in a central location or in multiple locations

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Data Hierarchy

Structure and organization of data, which involves fields, records, and files

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Database Management System (DBMS)

Software for creating, strong, maintaining, and accessing database files

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Internal Data

Collected from within an organization, stored in the organizations internal database

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External Data

Comes from a variety of sources, stored in a data warehouse

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Sequential access file structure

records in files are organized and processed in numerical or sequential order, organized based on a primary key, used for backup and archive files

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Random access file structure

Records can be accessed in any order, regardless of their physical locations in storage media, (data is small)

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Indexed sequential access method (ISAM)

Records accessed sequentially or randomly, depending on the number accessed

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Physical View

How data is stored on and retrieved from storage media

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Logical View

How information appears to users and how it can be organized and retrieved

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Data Structure

describes how data is organized and related

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operations

describe methods and calculations performed on data

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Integrity rules

define the boundaries of the database

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Hierarchical Model

Relationships between records from a treelike structure

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Network Model

Similar to the hierarchical model but records are organized differently

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Relational Databases

Stores data in the form of relations

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Attribute

the properties that define a relation

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Relation Schema

represents the relation’s name with its attributes

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Tuple

Each row in the relation is known

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Relation Instance

The set of tuples of a relation at a particular time

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Degree

The number of attributes in the relation is known as the degree of the relation

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Cardinality

The number of unique values in a relational table

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NULL Values

The value that is unknown or unavailable

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Data dictionary

Stores definitions, such as data types for fields, default values, and validation rules for data in each field (first step)

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Super Key

is a set of one or more attributes that are taken collectively and can identify all other attributes uniquely

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Candidate Key

The minimal set of attributes that can uniquely identify a tuple (the minimum combination)

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Primary Key

There can be more than one candidate key in relation, out of which one can be chosen as the primary key.

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Foreign Key

If an attribute can only take the values which are present as values of some other attribute

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Normalization

Process of structuring a relational database with standard normal forms

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Operations

Relational DBMS retrieves data from tables using operations that pick and combine data from one or more table

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Database Engine

Responsible for data storage, manipulation, and retrieval (the heart of the data base)

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Data Definition

Used to create and maintain the data dictionary (what is inside the data)

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Data Manipulation

Used to add, delete, modify, and retrieve records from a database

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Application Generation

designs elements of an application using a database

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Data Administration

Used for tasks such as backup and recovery, security, and change management

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Database Administrators

Handle database design and management

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Data-driven Web sites

Retrieve data and allows users to enter data in the database, improve access to information

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Distributed Database Management System (DDBMS)

Stores data on multiple servers throughout an organization

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Fragmentation

addresses how tables are divided among multiple locations

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Replication

each site stores a copy of the data in the organization’s database

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Allocation

combines fragmentation and replication

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Object-Oriented Databases

Data and their relationships are contained in a single object

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Encapsulation

grouping objects along with their attributes and methods into a class

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Inheritance

new objects can be created faster and more easily by entering new data in attributes

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Data Warehouse

Collection of data from a variety of sources

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Raw Data

Data in its original form

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Summary Data

Data on the subtotals of various categories

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Metadata

Data about the data (data’s content, quality, condition, origin, and other characteristics)

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Online Transaction Processing (OLTP)

Used by transaction-oriented application, used to analyze transaction-oriented data

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Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)

Used to generate business intelligence, uses to analyze data from multiple sources, involves multidimensional analysis

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Data-mining analysis

Involves examining the data to discover patterns and relationships

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Decision-making reports

Involves creating reports used for decision-making

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