History Midterm

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Order of the Presidency

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136 Terms

1

Order of the Presidency

Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson (Chart)

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2

politcal party

a group that seeks to elect candidates to public office

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3

Conservation Efforts

  • Roosevelt - Set aside almost 200 million acres of land for protection.

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4

Controlling Corporations

-Roosevelt didn't believe that all monopolies were bad

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5

Helping Consumers

  • Wilson created 18th and 19 amendment

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6

Sqaure Deal

a fair share of what is asked for

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7

Pure Food and Drug Act

Halted the sale of contaminated foods and medicines and called for truth in labeling

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8

Meat Inspection Act

Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption.

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9

18th Amendment

Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages

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10

19th Amendment

Gave women the right to vote

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11

Sherman Antitrust Act

outlawed monopolies

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12

How many trusts T.R. and Taft broke up?

Taft Broke Down 80 trusts in 4 years Roosevelt broke down 40 in 8 years

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13

How/why did Taft become President?

The Republican Convention nominated him

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14

1912 canidates

Wildrow Wilson, Taft, Roosevelt

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15

Political parties 1913

President William Howard Taft (Republican Party), former President Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive "Bull Moose Party") and New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson (Democratic Party).

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16

winner of 1912 election

Woodrow Wilson

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17

election outcome

Wilson won 42% of the popular vote, while his nearest challenger, Roosevelt, won just 27%.

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18

Significance

importance

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19

Imperialists

Countries that claim colonies in other lands

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20

Anti-Imperialists

People who were opposed to American growing into a world power

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21

Roosevelt Corollary

The corollary stated that not only were the nations of the Western Hemisphere not open to colonization by European powers, but that the United States had the responsibility to preserve order and protect life and property in those countries

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22

Who were the major imperialist nations? Where did they control?

European Countries and USA (Great

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23

Spanish American War

In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence

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24

Yellow Journalism

misleading images for the sole purpose of boosting

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25

The USS Maine

American battleship that exploded and caused the Spanish American war

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26

Rough Riders

Volunteer regiment of US Cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish American War

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27

Philippines

Engaged in war with Spain and believed that after the war, the USA would liberate them which did not happen

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28

Panama Canal

Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States, it opened in 1915.

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29

Russian-Japanese War

Reference to the Russo-Japanese war, in which Japan defeated Russia

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30

Alaska became the 49th state in what year?

1959

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31

Hawaii became 50th state

1959

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32

Annex

to add more land to

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33

17th Amendment

Direct election of senators

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34

Jane Addams

the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes

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35

Thomas Nast

caricaturist and editorial cartoonist considered to be the "Father of the American Cartoon"

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36

Boss Tweed

A political boss who carried corruption to new extremes, and cheated the city out of more than $100 million

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37

Jacob Riis

a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.

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38

Ida B. Wells

African-American journalist who led the fight against lynching

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39

W.E.B. DuBois

1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910

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40

Booker T. Washington

African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.

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41

Upton Sinclair

muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago.

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42

Ida Tarbell

reporter who exposed illegal actions committed by the Standard Oil Company.

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43

Lincoln Steffens

Early muckraker who exposed the political corruption in many American cities

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44

Jim Crow

Statutes, beginning in the 1890s, that required segregation of public services by race

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45

Plessy v. Ferguson

1896 Supreme Court decision that segregation was legal as long as the separate facilities provided for blacks were equal to those provided to whites

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46

Lynching

Murder of an accused person by a mob without a lawful trial

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47

Pogrom

violent attack on a Jewish community

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48

Sociology

term coined by philosopher Auguste Comte to describe the study of how people interact with one another in a society

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49

Initiative

A process in which citizens can put a proposed new law directly on the ballot in the next election by collecting voters' signatures on a petition

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50

Referendum

process that allows citizens to approve or reject a law passed by a legislature

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51

reform

change

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52

recall

Procedure that permits voters to remove public officials from office before the next election

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53

progressive

going forward to something considered better

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54

direct primary

Election in which all citizens vote to select nominees for upcoming elections

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55

steerage

A large open area beneath a ship's deck, often used to house traveling immigrants

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56

quarantine

A time of isolation to prevent the spread of disease

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57

ghettos

Area in which one ethnic or racial group dominates

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58

Chinese Exclusion Act

1882 law that prohibited Chinese laborers from entering the country

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59

Gentlemen's Agreement

1907 agreement between the

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60

Alien

A noncitizen

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61

Suburb

Residential community surrounding a city

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62

tenement

A low-cost apartment building that often has poor standards of sanitation, safety, and comfort, and is designed to house as many families as possible

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63

Dumbell Tenements

A tenement building that narrowed in the middle, forming air shafts on either side and allowing light and air into the rooms

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64

political machine

An unofficial city organization designed

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65

Settlement House

Community center organized to provide

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66

Nativism

A policy of favoring native-born Americans over

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67

Assimilation

Process by which people of one culture merge

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68

poll tax

A special fee that must be paid before a person can

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69

Grandfather Clause

Passage in a law that exempts a group of people from obeying the law if they had met certain conditions before the law was passed

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70

Segregation

Forced separation, oftentimes by race

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71

NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)

Organization founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism, and to gain civil rights for African Americans

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72

patent

license that gives an inventor the exclusive right to make, use, or sell and invention for a set period of time

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73

Piecework

Work paid according to the number of units produced

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74

sweatshop

A shop or factory where workers work long hours at low wages under unhealthy conditions

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75

Monopoly

complete control of a product or service

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76

union

A worker association that bargains with employers over wages, benefits, and working conditions

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77

strike

Nonviolent refusal to continue to work until a problem is resolved.

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78

Thomas Edison

American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.

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79

Alexander Graham Bell

Invented the telephone

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80

Lewis Hine

Photographer who used his pictures to draw attention to social problems such as child labor and the poor living conditions of immigrants in New York City.

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81

Andrew Carnegie

A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.

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82

John Rockefeller

Creator of the Standard Oil Company who made a fortune on it and joined with competing companies in trust agreements that in other words made an amazing monopoly.

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83

Cornelius Vanderbilt

A railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.

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84

J.P. Morgan

Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"

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85

Jay Gould

United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market (1836-1892)

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86

George Pullman

American inventor of the Pullman sleeping car and founder of Pullman, Illinois

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87

Reasons for growth of cities & the growing work force

Cities grew because industrial factories required large workforces and workers and their families needed places to live near their jobs

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88

Changes in work

usually due to unforeseen conditions or requests by the owner.

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89

Changes in factory work

additional managers and employees were required to operate them, increasing the supply of jobs and overall wages.

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90

Changes in the work environment

anything that interjects with previous work routines, team members, job roles or specific job duties.

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91

Changes in families working

converting it from a unit of production into a unit of consumption, causing a decline in fertility and a transformation in the relationship between spouses and between parents and children.

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92

Child Labor

Child labor was prevelant in the late 1800s and early 1900s. The awful working conditions stunted children in body & mind - many were working instead of learning.

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93

Changes/effects of the new inventions & new technology

These new developments allowed the industrial revolution to grow rapidly and spread throughout Europe and the United States.

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94

Changes in Communications

the transmission of information that tells employees what is changing, how this change will affect them, and what they need to do next.

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95

Changes in energy

usage of coal, mainly for steam engines, but increasingly for power plants.

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96

Changes in technology

They changed the way things were powered, how goods were manufactured, how people communicated, and the way goods were transported.

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97

The Big Business of the time & the impact

Companies could now mass produce standardized goods faster and more efficiently.

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98

Creation of labor unions

Labor unions are associations of workers formed to protect workers' rights and advance their interests.

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99

Haymarket Strike

8 men identified as anarchists were sentenced to prison and/or death penalty. Viewed as a setback in the labor movement. Public opinion divided - some on side of labor, others for business

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100

Homestead Strike

Carnegie Steel cut wages & jobs, and implemented a wage cut. 26 states passed laws ending the use of hired men like Pinkertons. Ended unions for steel workers until WWI.

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