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Mayflower Compact

1 / 178

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US History

179 Terms

1

Mayflower Compact

A formal agreement signed by the Separatist colonists aboard the Mayflower in 1620 to abide by laws made by leaders of their own choosing.

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2

Virginia House of Burgesses

In 1619, just 12 years after the founding of Jamestown, Virginia's colonists organized the first representative assembly in America, the Virginia House of Burgesses.

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3

Chesapeake Colonies

In 1632, the area once known as the Virginia colony, has divided into the Virginia and Maryland colony. Maryland became the first proprietary colony. Characterized by bad weather and the growth of cash crops, particularly tobacco.

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4

Bacon's Rebellion

Unsuccessful 1676 revolt led by planter Nathaniel Bacon against Virginia governor William Berkeley's administration, which, Bacon charged, had failed to protect settlers from Indian raids.

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5

Great Awakening

Fervent religious revival movement that swept the thirteen colonies from the 1720s through the 1740s. Created a distinction between the "New Lights" (Baptists, Methodists) and "Old Lights" (Congregationalist/Puritan, Anglican)

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6

Anne Hutchinson

The articulate, strong-willed, and intelligent wife of a prominent Boston merchant, who espoused her belief in direct divine revelation. She quarreled with Puritan leaders over her beliefs, and they banished her from the colony.

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7

New Netherlands (Dutch)

Henry Hudson of Dutch East India Company explores America and est. lucrative fur trade relations w/ Iroquois Confederacy. Conflict as Iroquois move westward in search of beavers, encroaching on other tribes hunting grounds- Beaver Wars. Dutch are more concerned with freedom and profits than religion.

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8

Middle Colonies Economy

NY, PA, DE, NJ. Mixed economy- Farmers grew cash crops, there were industries such as lumber and iron mills, and New York and Philadelphia were large trading centers. More religiously tolerant.

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9

New England Colonies

Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire. Mostly formed by religious dissenters/separatists. Economy tended towards shipbuilding, fishing, and small-scale farming.

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10

Starving Time (1609-1610)

The winter of 1609 to 1610 was known as the "starving time" to the colonists of Virginia. Only sixty members of the original four-hundred colonists survived. The rest died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the new world.

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11

Casta System

A system in colonial Spain of determining a person's social importance according to different racial categories: peninsulares, creoles, mestizos, indigenous, Africans

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12

Encomienda

A land-grant system under which Spanish army officers (conquistadores) were awarded large parcels of land taken from Native Americans.

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13

Christopher Columbus

The Italian sailor who persuaded King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to fund his expedition across the Atlantic to discover a new trade route to Asia. Instead of arriving at China or Japan, he reached the Bahamas in 1492.

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14

Columbian Exchange

The transfer of biological and social elements, such as plants, animals, people, diseases, and cultural practices, among Europe, the Americas, and Africa in the wake of Christopher Columbus's voyages to the "New World."

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15

Pueblo Revolt

Native American revolted against the Spanish in late 17th century. Led by Popé against the forcible conversation of natives by the Catholic Church.

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16

Halfway Covenant

In the 1660s, people could now take part in church services and activities without making a formal commitment to Christ. It was created because the next generation of colonists were less committed to religious faith, but churches still needed members.

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17

Jamestown

In 1607, the first permanent English colony in America was founded at this location. The Virginia Company, was a a joint-stock company chartered by England's King James I.

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18

Puritans

Group of dissenters that wanted to purify the Church of England. In 1630 they founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony at Boston.

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19

Separatists (Pilgrims)

Radical dissenters to the Church of England, they were known by this name because they wanted to organized a completely separate church that was independent of royal control. They became known as Pilgrims, because of the travels.

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20

Conquistadores

Spanish term for "conquerors," applied to Spanish and Portuguese soldiers who conquered lands held by indigenous peoples in central and southern America as well as the current states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California.

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21

King Philip's War

A bloody, three-year war in New England (1675-1678), resulting from the escalation of tensions between Indians and English settlers; the defeat of the Indians led to broadened freedoms for the settlers and their dispossessing the region's Indians of most of their land.

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22

King Philip (Metacomet)

The chief of the Wampanoages, whom the colonists called King Philip. He resented English efforts to convert Indians to Christianity and waged a war against the English colonists, one in which he was killed.

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23

Indentured Servants

Settlers who consented to a defined period of labor (often four to seven years) in exchange for having their passage to the New World paid by their "master."

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24

Headright System

A land-grant policy that promised fifty acres to any colonist who could afford passage to Virginia, as well as fifty more for any accompanying servants. The headright policy was eventually expanded to include any colonists—and was also adopted in other colonies.

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25

Salem Witch Trials

Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem. Dozens of people were hanged as a result. Attributed to mass hysteria, but historians do not have a single causal explanation.

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26

Georgia (Colony)

Founded to create a barrier between the Spanish owned southern land and the Northern British owned land. It was the last of the original 13 colonies, founded by James Oglethorpe on April 21, 1732. Originally designated as free from slavery and alcohol.

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27

Pennsylvania (Colony)

Colony formed to be a "Holy Experiment" settled by Quakers. Founded by William Penn, who bought land from the Native Americans. Allowed religious freedom.

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28

Plymouth Colony

A colony established by the English Pilgrims, or Separatists, in 1620. The Separatists were Puritans who abandoned hope that the Anglican Church could be reformed. Plymouth became part of Massachusetts in 1691.

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29

Bartalome de las Casas

A Catholic missionary who renounced the Spanish practice of coercively converting Indians and advocated their better treatment. In 1552, he wrote A Brief Relation of the Destruction of the Indies, which described the Spanish's cruel treatment of the Indians.

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30

Black Legend

False concept that Spanish conquerors only tortured and murdered Indians, stole gold and infected them with smallpox, leaving nothing of benefit. Ignores the social and religious impacts of Spanish colonization.

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31

Roger Williams

Puritan who believed that the purity of the church required a complete separation between church and state and freedom from coercion in matters of faith. In 1636, he established the town of Providence, the first permanent settlement in Rhode Island and the first to allow religious freedom in America.

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32

Mercantilism

Policy of Great Britain and other imperial powers of regulating the economies of colonies to benefit the mother country.

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33

Salutary Neglect

Informal British policy during the first half of the eighteenth century that allowed the American colonies considerable freedom to pursue their economic and political interests in exchange for colonial obedience.

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34

Navigation Acts

Restrictions passed by the British Parliament between 1650 and 1775 to control colonial trade and bolster the mercantile system.

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35

Seven Years' War (French & Indian War)

The last—and most important—of four colonial wars fought between England and France for control of North America east of the Mississippi River. Waged in both Europe, the New World, and across the globe. (The French & Indian War was the American portion.)

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36

Treaty of Paris (1763)

Settlement between Great Britain and France that ended the French and Indian War.

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37

Pontiac's Rebellion

An Indian attack on British forts and settlements after France ceded to the British its territory east of the Mississippi River, as part of the Treaty of Paris in 1763, without consulting France's Indian allies.

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38

Proclamation of 1763

A result of Pontiac's Rebellion. A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.

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39

Sugar Act

The Sugar Act cut the duty on foreign molasses from 6 to 3 pence per gallon, retained a high duty on foreign refined sugar, and prohibited the importation of all foreign rum. Disliked by Americans because it had the purpose of generating revenue. It also did away with the unwritten policy of Salutary Neglect.

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40

Stamp Act

Act of Parliament requiring that all printed materials (e.g., newspapers, bonds, and even playing cards) in the American colonies use paper with an official tax stamp in order to pay for British military protection of the colonies.

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41

Stamp Act Congress

Twenty-seven delegates from nine of the colonies met from October 7-25, 1765 and wrote a Declaration of the Rights and Grievances of the Colonies, a petition to the King, and a petition to Parliament for the repeal of the Stamp Act.

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42

Virtual vs. Actual Representation

The idea that the American colonies, although they had no actual representative in Parliament, were "virtually" represented by all members of Parliament.

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43

Sons and Daughters of Liberty

The Sons of Liberty were a well-organized Patriot paramilitary political organization shrouded in secrecy, was established to undermine British rule in colonial America and was influential in organizing and carrying out the Boston Tea Party. The Daughters of Liberty were colonial women who protested the British government's tax policies by boycotting British products, such as clothing, and who wove their own fabric, or "homespun."

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44

Townshend Acts (1767)

Parliamentary measures to extract more revenue from the colonies; the Revenue Act of 1767, which taxed tea, paper, and other colonial imports, was one of the most notorious of these policies.

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45

Boston Massacre

Violent confrontation between British soldiers and a Boston mob on March 5, 1770, in which five colonists were killed.

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46

Tea Act

1773 act which eliminated import tariffs on tea entering England and allowed the British East India Company to sell directly to consumers rather than through merchants. Led to the Boston Tea Party.

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47

Boston Tea Party

Demonstration against the Tea Act of 1773 in which the Sons of Liberty, dressed as Indians, dumped hundreds of chests of British-owned tea into Boston Harbor.

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48

Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)

Four parliamentary measures of 1774 that required the colonies to pay for the Boston Tea Party's damages, imposed a military government, disallowed colonial trials of British soldiers, and forced the quartering of troops in private homes.

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49

Continental Congress

A body of representatives from the British North American colonies who met to respond to England's Intolerable Acts. They declared independence in July 1776 and later drafted the Articles of Confederation.

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50

Battle of Lexington and Concord

The first shots fired in the Revolutionary War, on April 19, 1775, near Boston; approximately 100 Minutemen and 250 British soldiers were killed.

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51

Battle of Bunker Hill

First major battle of the Revolution. It showed that the Americans could win, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw. However, the British suffered more casualties.

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52

Olive Branch Petition

On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.

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53

Thomas Paine's "Common Sense"

Popular pamphlet written by Thomas Paine attacking British principles of hereditary rule and monarchical government, and advocating a declaration of American independence.

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54

Declaration of Independence

Formal statement, principally drafted by Thomas Jefferson and adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, that officially announced the thirteen colonies' break with Great Britain.

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55

John Locke's Social Contract Theory

Locke's social contract theory asserts that government exists only by the consent of the people in order to protect basic rights and promote the common good of society. Heavily influenced Jefferson in writing the Declaration of Independence.

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56

Battles of Saratoga and Yorktown

The Battle of Saratoga was the turning point for the American rebels; after it, the French army allied themselves with the Americans and fought alongside them against the British (their oldest enemy). Yorktown was the final battle of the Revolution, where British General Cornwallis surrendered and the war was ended.

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57

Treaty of Paris (1783)

This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.

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58

Effects of American Revolution

Political & Social, Although after the Revolution many northern states abolished slavery, none of the southern states changed the status of enslaved people. Women, though active during the Revolution, did not see an increase in their rights, despite Abigail Adams' reminder to "Remember the Ladies." Most women displayed their concern through "Republican Motherhood." Native Americans saw further encroachment on their land, as restrictions on western settlement beyond the Appalachians continued.

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59

Republican Motherhood

An idea linked to republicanism that elevated the status of women. It gave them the special role as the keepers of the nation's conscience. Educational opportunities for women expanded due to this. Its roots were from the idea that a citizen should be to his country as a mother is to her child.

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60

Effects of the American Revolution

Both France and Haiti were emboldened by the American Revolution to enact their own revolutions, and many former colonies declaring independence would use America as a model and the Declaration of Independence as an inspiration.

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61

Articles of Confederation (Strengths & Weaknesses)

1st Constitution of the USA, 1 central gov't, divided power between central and state governments, Congress could declare war, sign treaties, deliver mail, rules to establish future states. But, Weak central government, state powers too strong, states only had 1 rep and 1 vote in Congress, no executive branch, could not tax the states, could not regulate trade, could not enforce laws, difficult to amend the Articles.

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62

Shays' Rebellion

Storming of the Massachusetts federal arsenal in 1787 by Daniel Shays and 1,200 armed farmers seeking debt relief from the state legislature through issuance of paper currency and lower taxes.

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63

Virginia Plan, New Jersey Plan, and Connecticut Plan (Great Compromise)

The delegations to the Constitutional Convention were divided between two plans on how to structure the government- Virginia called for a strong central government and a two-house legislature apportioned by population. New Jersey wanted one legislative body with equal representation for each state. Connecticut offered a compromise by providing for a bicameral legislature, the upper house of which would have equal representation and the lower house of which would be apportioned by population.

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64

3/5 Compromise & 1808 Slave Trade Compromise

Compromise between Northern and Southern states that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives. The Slave Trade Compromise, which gave the federal government some power over commerce, with the provisions that Congress could not prohibit the slave trade for 20 years until 1808, but could levy a tax on people imported and used as slaves.

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65

Electoral College

As prescribed in the U.S. Constitution, American presidents are elected not directly by the people, but by the people's electors. The Electoral College was created by the framers of the U.S. Constitution as an alternative to electing the president by popular vote or by Congress.

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66

Separation of Powers & Checks & Balances

The powers granted to the new State governments were purposely divided among three branches- executive, legislative, and judicial. Each branch was given powers with which to check (restrain the actions of) the other branches of the government.

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67

Federalism

A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments.

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68

Elastic Cause vs. 10th Amendment

Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution; known also as the "necessary and proper" clause that allows Congress to extend its delegated powers. Contrasted to 10th Amendment, which says that the Federal Government only has those powers delegated in the Constitution. If it isn't listed, it belongs to the states or to the people.

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69

Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

Federalists were people who supported the ratification of the Constitution. Anti-Federalists did not support the Constitution and pushed for the addition of a Bill of Rights.

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70

Bill of Rights

First ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1791 to guarantee individual rights and to help secure ratification of the Constitution by the states.

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71

Federalist Papers

A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.

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72

Hamilton's Economic Plan

  1. Assume the revolutionary war debt of all thirteen states 2. Pay off in full the debt of the government for the reputation of the new nation 3. Establish a bank like the bank of England (Bank of United States) 4. Impose tariffs to encourage and protect domestic manufacturers.

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73

Loose vs. Strict Interpretation

Loose interpretation means that the federal government can take reasonable actions that the Constitution does not specifically forbid. Strict Construction means that the federal government should do only what the Constitution says it can do.

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74

Federalists vs. Democratic Republicans

FEDERALISTS- commercial, urban and industrial American society. Also, they believed in a meritocracy and America as a world power. They wanted to create a complex economy with agricultural, industrial, national, and international commerce along with immigrant labor. Furthermore, they believe in the "aristocracy of merit" for their political leadership. In addition they believe in a strong central government with government support for economic development because they were skeptical of state rights. In addition, they favored a broad, loose interpretation of the Constitution. DEMOCRATIC - REPUBLICANS- They believed in a decentralized, rural, agrarian society that opposed a commercial, urban, and industrial society. They also wanted to avoid world problems. Furthermore, they liked an agricultural economy with an emphasis on local commerce and slave labor. In addition, they wanted citizens such as farmers for their political leaders. They also believed in a limited central government in order to preserve the states' rights, they opposed government support for economic development. Lastly, they had a strict interpretation of the Constitution. SIMILARITIES- Both parties believed in personal freedom, national independence, capitalism, and a republican government.

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75

Proclamation of Neutrality (1793)

A formal announcement issued by President George Washington on April 22, 1793, declaring the United States a neutral nation in the conflict between Great Britain and France.

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76

Jay's Treaty

Agreement between Britain and the United States, negotiated by Chief Justice John Jay, that settled disputes over trade, prewar debts owed to British merchants, British-occupied forts in American territory, and the seizure of American ships and cargo.

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77

Whiskey Rebellion (1793-4)

Violent protest by western Pennsylvania farmers against the federal excise tax on corn whiskey, put down by a federal army.

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78

Pinckney's Treaty (1795)

Treaty with Spain negotiated by Thomas Pinckney in 1795; established United States boundaries at the Mississippi River and the 31st parallel and allowed open transportation on the Mississippi.

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79

Washington's Farewell Address

Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.

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80

Quasi War

Undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800. The French began to seize American ships trading with their British enemies and refused to receive a new United States minister when he arrived in Paris in December 1796.

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81

XYZ Affair

French foreign minister Tallyrand's three anonymous agents demanded payments to stop French plundering of American ships in 1797; refusal to pay the bribe led to two years of sea war with France (1798-1800).

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82

Alien and Sedition Acts

Four measures passed during the undeclared war with France that limited the freedoms of speech and press and restricted the liberty of non- citizens.

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83

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

Passed in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, the resolutions advanced the state-compact theory that held states could nullify an act of Congress if they deemed it unconstitutional.

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84

"Revolution" of 1800

Electoral victory of Democratic Republicans over the Federalists, who lost their Congressional majority and the presidency. The peaceful transfer of power between rival parties solidified faith in America's political system.

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85

Marbury v. Madison

First Supreme Court decision to declare a federal law—the Judiciary Act of 1801—unconstitutional. Establishes the precedent for "judicial review."

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86

Jeffersonian Economic Policy

Jefferson's commitment to Republican simplicity was matched by his stress on economy in government. He slashed army and navy expenditures, cut the budget, eliminated taxes on whiskey, houses, and slaves, and fired all federal tax collectors.

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87

Barbary Pirates

North Africans who waged war (1801-1805) on the United States after President Thomas Jefferson refused to pay tribute (a bribe) to protect American ships.

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88

Louisiana Purchase

President Thomas Jefferson's purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million, doubling the size of U.S. territory.

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89

Embargo Act (1807)

A law promoted by President Thomas Jefferson prohibiting American ships from leaving for foreign ports, in order to safeguard them from British and French attacks. This ban on American exports proved disastrous to the U.S. economy.

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90

War of 1812

Causes- British military support of Native Americans in Midwest; British impressments of sailors & insult due to "Chesapeake & Leopard" affair; Desire to expand into Canada and Florida (War Hawks)

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91

Treaty of Ghent

Agreement between Great Britain and the United States that ended the War of 1812, signed on December 24, 1814.

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92

Hartford Convention

A series of secret meetings in December 1814 and January 1815 at which New England Federalists protested American involvement in the War of 1812 and discussed several constitutional amendments, including limiting each president to one term, designed to weaken the dominant Republican Party.

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93

War of 1812

Effects- America proved it could protect itself. British remove support and some bases in Midwest. Allowed for continued western expansion.America became more independent of foreign trade; created their own goods (Embargo of 1807). Helped Americans feel more Patriotic about their country.

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94

The American System

Economic plan championed by Henry Clay of Kentucky that called for federal tariffs on imports, a strong national bank, and federally-financed internal improvements—roads, bridges, canals—all intended to strengthen the national economy and end American dependence on Great Britain.

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95

The Marshall Court Cases

Dartmouth v. Woodward, McCulloch v. Maryland, Gibbons v. Ogden Established the constitutional supremacy of the national government over states.

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96

Dartmouth v. Woodward

Ruling that enlarged the definition of contract to put corporations beyond the reach of the states that chartered them.

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97

McCulloch v. Maryland

Ruled that Congress had the authority to charter the Bank of the United States and that states did not have the right to tax the national bank.

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98

Gibbons v. Ogden

Reinforced federal government claims regarding the power to regulate interstate commerce.

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99

"Era of Good Feelings"

A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.

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100

Panic of 1819

A financial panic that began a three-year-long economic crisis triggered by a reduced demand of American imports, declining land values, and reckless practices by local and state banks.

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