Anthropology

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cultural relativism

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122 Terms

1

cultural relativism

we should understand people's beliefs/behaviours from the perspective of their own culture

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2

Deductive

create hypothesis and then designs a study to prove/disprove the hypothesis

  • results can be generalized to other settings

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3

Enculturation

learning characteristics and expectations of culture/group

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4

Ethnocentrism

tendency to view one's won culture as more important + measure other culture

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5

Ethnography

study of everyday practices and lives of a people

process/result of cultural anthropology research

research is inductive and ethnographic is the result of fieldwork

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6

hominin

Humans and their close relatives/immediate ancestors

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7

inductive

specific info to draw general conclusions. Collect evidence without proving/disproving a hypothesis

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8

Paleoanthropologist

bio anthrax that study ancient relatives

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9

Participant Observation

observes while participating in activities that informants are engaging in

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10

Armchair Anthro

people who never went to the field but relied on others for their ethnographic data

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11

cultural determinism

behavioural differences are cultural, not genetics

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12

cultural evolutionism

suggested that societies evolved through stages from simple to advanced

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13

Culture

beliefs, practices and symbols that are learned and shared that bind ppl together and shape their worldview

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14

Functionalism

emphasize the way that parts of society work together to support functioning of the whole

social institutions exist and work together to maintain social stability, social cohesion or social order over time

critique - views cultures as stable and orderly and ignores or cannot explain social change or why one chooses once institution over another

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15

going native

fully integrated into cultural group through acts like leadership position, assuming key roles in society, marrying etc.

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16

holism

how aspects of human life influence one another

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17

kinship

blood ties, common ancestry and social relationships that form families

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18

Structural Functionalism

focus on customs/insitutions that contribute to society and social order in culture

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19

"The Other"

people whose customs, beliefs or behaviours are different from one's own

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20

Contested Identity

dispute about collective identity(ies)

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21

Diaspora

people who left go homeland and live in various locations

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22

Emic

people who study culture from in the culture

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23

Key Informants

more knowledgeable about their culture than others

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24

land tenure

how property rights to lands are allocated

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25

Noble Savage

"innocent, childlike or uncorrupted by negative characteristics of civilization

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26

remittances

money migrants send by home to fam

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27

Thick Description

describes behaviour/cultural event , context it occurs in, and anthropology interpretations of it

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28

arbitrariness

relationship between a symbol and its meaning (referent). No natural connection

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29

bound Morpheme

meaning that cant stand alone (must be attached to other morpheme)

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30

Closed system

form of communication that cant create new meaning/messages

Only convey preprogrammed messages

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31

code switching

2 or more languages in particular interaction

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32

Creole

a language developed from a pidgin to become the native tongue of a society

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33

pidgins

structurally simple communication systems that arise when people who share no common language come into constant contact

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34

Critical age range hypothesis

a child will gradually lose the ability to acquire language naturally and without effort if they are not exposed to other people speaking a language

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35

cultural transmission

  • the need for some aspects of the system to be learned

  • a feature of some species' communication systems.

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36

Design Features

  • descriptive characteristics of the communication systems of all species, including that of humans,

  • linguist Charles Hockett to serve as a definition of human language

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37

Dialect

variety of speech

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38

Discreteness

feature of human speech that can be isolated from others

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39

Displacement

communicate about things outside the here and now

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40

Gesture-call system

using other senses outside of voice to communicate

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41

duality of patterning

at the first level of patterning, meaningless discrete sounds of speech are combined to formwords and parts of words that carry meaning.

In the second level of patterning, those units of meaning are recombined to form an infinite possible number of longer messages such as phrases and sentences.

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42

historical linguistics

study of how languages change

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43

Interchangeability

ability of all individuals to send/recieve messages

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44

Kinesics

study of all forms of human body language

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45

Language death

exinction of language

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46

language

idealized form of speech, usually referred to as the standard variety

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47

language shift

stop using old language and begin using a new one

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48

Language universals

characteristics shared by all linguist

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49

Larynx

voice box; containing the vocal cords

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50

lexicon

language vocab

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51

linguistic relativity/ Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

structures/words influence how speakers think, behaviour and ultimate culture itself

Whorf is the father of american linguistic anthropology

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52

Middle English

1066 AD - 1500 AD

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53

Minimal response

the vocal indications that one is listening to a speaker

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54

Modern English

1500 A.D. - Present

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55

Morphemes

basic meaningful units in a language

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56

Morphology

study of morphemes

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57

Old English

before 1066 AD

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58

open system

infinite # of new messages

only human language

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59

Oralist Approach

emphasize lib reading and oral speaking while discouraging sign language for deaf kids

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60

Palate

roof of the mouth

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61

Paralanguage

speech beyond words ex) pitch, tone, tempo

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62

Pharynx

Throat Cavity

Above Larynx

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63

Phonemes

meaningless sounds of a language

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64

Phonology

the study of speech sounds in language

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65

Pragmatic Function

the useful purpose of a communication. Usefulness is a feature of all species' communication systems.

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66

pragmatic

use of social context in interactions

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67

Productivity/Creativity

produce + understand messages that have never been expressed before

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68

Proxemics

study of personal space

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69

Register

speech varying on who speaks and in what context

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70

semanticity

meaning of signs in communication system

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71

Semantics

how meaning is conveyed @ word/phrase level

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72

Speech act

intention/goal of an utterance

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73

standard

variant of any language thats been given special prestige in community

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74

symbol

anything that serves to refer to something else

groups decide what symbols mean

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75

syntax

rules which language combines morphemes into larger units

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76

Taxonomies

system of classification

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77

universal grammer

template for human languages is in our genes

Noam Chomsky

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78

unbound morpheme

a morpheme that can stand alone as a separate word

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79

vernaculars

non-standard varieties of language

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80

Agriculture

cultivation of domesticated plants/animals via tech

can support big fans

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81

broad spectrum diet

diet based on wide range of resources

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82

Built environment

human made spaces that include cultivated lands and buildings

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83

Carrying capacirty

amount of calories that can be taken from the land

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84

Commodity cHAIN

Steps food from production to stores

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85

Delayed Return System

investing before food is available ex) farming

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86

domestic economy

work to get food for family/house

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87

Foodways

norms/attitudes surrounding food/eating

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88

Foraging

aka hunting and gathering

relying on wild plant/food resource

“nasty, brutish, short”

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89

Historical ecology

how human cultures have developed over time due to interactions with environment

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90

Horticulture

small cultivation of crops for house/community consumption

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91

modes of subsistence

tech used by members of society to get food

4 modes: forage, pastoralism, horticulture and agri

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92

mono-cropping

rely on single plant for food

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93

Neolitic Revolution

innovation in subsistence that led to agriculture

began 10,000 years ago

"neo" means New Stone Age

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94

pastoralism

people raise herds of domesticated livestock

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95

staple crops

foods form backbone of subsistence system

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96

Subsistence System

Practices used by members of society to acquire goods

skills, practice & tech used to get more food

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97

World System

Econ system through how goods circulate around the globe

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98

Anthropology

study of humanity

4 types: linguistic, cultural, biological and archeology

Practical subfield is applied

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99

Applied Antrho

solve specific practical problems in collaboration with \n governmental, non-profit, and community organization

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100

Antrho thinking

age of discovery (1400-1700)

age of enlightenment (Beginning in 1700)

development of science, participant observation and cultural relativism (1800)

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