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Macromolecules

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115 Terms

1

Macromolecules

Large carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids.

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Polymer

Long molecules consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds

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Monomer

Repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer

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4

Enzymes

Specialized macromolecules that speed up (catalyze) dehydration process

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5

Condensation Reaction

Also called dehydration synthesis/ reaction

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Condensation Reaction

Reaction in which two molecules/monomers are covalently bonded to each other through the loss of water molecule

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Hydrolysis

Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water

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8

4 biomolecules

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

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9

Carbon

The central element

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10

Carbon has ______ valence electrons; hence, its bonding capacity is great

four

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11

Carbon linkage:

  • Single chains

  • Rings

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Carbon binds to:

  • OH groups in sugar

  • NH2 groups in amino acids

  • H2PO4 groups of nucleotides of DNA, RNA, and ATP

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13

Functional groups:

OH, NH2, PO4

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14

Isomer

Same molecular formula, Different Structure

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15

Structural isomer

difference in the C skeleton structure

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Stereoisomer

difference in location of functional groups

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Enantiomers

  • is a special type of stereoisomers that mirror images of each other

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Monomers are made into polymers via

dehydration reaction

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19

Polymers are broken down into monomers via

hydrolysis reactions

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20

Monomer and Polymer of Carbohydrate

Monosaccharide Starch

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21

Monomer and Polymer of Nucleic Acid

Nucleotide DNA/RNA strand

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22

Monomer and Polymer of Protein

Amino acid Polypeptide

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23

Monomer and Polymer of Lipids

Fatty Acid Triglyceride

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24

Organic Molecules

Also known as hydrocarbons

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25

Organic Molecules

Compounds that contain the elements: Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), and Oxygen (O) with a simple C-H bond in them

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Methane (CH4) with 5 atoms (highly flammable)

Simplest organic compound

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27

Inorganic Molecules

  • Do not contain carbon and hydrogen; thus, lack C-H bonds

  • Simple and is obtained from natural processes

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28

Carbohydrates

  • the starches and sugars present in foods

  • fast but short-term source of energy

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Monosaccharide (simple sugar)

Monomer of Carbs

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Glycosidic bond

Bond in Carbs

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1:2:1 proportion

CHO proportion in carbohydrates

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32

Monosaccharide, Disaccharide, Polysaccharide

Types of Carbohydrates:

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33

Monosaccharide

  • Molecular Formula: CH2O

  • Simplest sugar

  • Usually contains five to six carbon atoms

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34

Examples of Monosaccharide

glucose, fructose, galactose

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35

Disaccharide

Formed by linking two monosaccharides together through dehydration synthesis

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36

Examples of Disaccharide

sucrose, lactose, maltose

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Sucrose

  • Table sugar

  • Used by plants to fuel growth

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38

Sucrose

Glucose + Fructose

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39

Lactose

  • Milk sugar (dairy)

  • Milk of cows, goats, and lactating women

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Lactose

Glucose + Galactose

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Maltose

  • Grain sugar

  • Fermentation of beers and energy in sprouting seed

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Maltose

Glucose + Glucose

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43

Polysaccharide

Long chains of glucose that differ only by orientation of the bonds that link the monomer.

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44

Examples of Polysaccharides

Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose, Chitin

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45

Starch

  • Also known as amylose

  • Stored form of glucose in plants

  • Source: Potato, pasta, cereal, cassava

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46

Glycogen

  • Stored form of glucose in animals

  • Source: liver and muscles

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47

Cellulose

  • Most common organic compound in nature

  • Found in the cell walls of plant

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48

Ruminant

Animals that chew their cud like horses and cows. Have a four-chambered stomach to break down cellulose with cellulase.

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49

Chitin

  • Second most common polysaccharide

  • Source: cell wall of fungi and flexible exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans.

  • Used in the manufacture of surgical thread

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50

Monomer of Lipids

Glycerol and fatty acid

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51

Bond in lipids

Ester Bond

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52

Lipids

  • Do not dissolve in water but can be dissolved in non-polar solvents

  • Hydrophobic (It contain long chains of non-polar carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds)

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53

Types of Lipids

Triglyceride, Phospholipids, and Steroids

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54

Triglyceride

Commonly known as "fat molecule"

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55

Triglyceride's backbone

three long hydrocarbon chain attached to a carboxyl group called fatty acids bonded to glycerol

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56

Glycerol

A three-carbon alcohol that contains three hydroxyl (OH) groups

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57

The degree of saturation of triglyceride is determined by the

hydrogen content of a fatty acid

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58

Saturated, Unsaturated, Polyunsaturated

Three degree of saturation of triglyceride

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Saturated fats

Single bonds connect all carbons and each carbon has two hydrogens

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Saturated fats

  • Straight and tightly packed against each other

  • Solid at room temperature

  • Comes from animal fats like bacon and butter

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Unsaturated Fats

  • Liquid in room temperature

  • Primarily from plants like corn, olive, coconut, and palm-kernel

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Monounsaturated Acid (Oleic)

One double bond in a fatty acid

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Polyunsaturated Acid (Linoleic)

Multiple bonds in a fatty acid

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Partial Hydrogenation

Done by attaching hydrogen atoms onto the carbons that makes it chemically look and taste like saturated fats

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Trans fat

Unsaturated fats whose fatty acid tails are straight

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Phospholipids

Have two fatty acid tails and a modified phosphate group that occupies the third carbon of the glycerol backbone

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Steroids

  • Have four interconnected or fused carbon rings

  • Soluble in non-polar solvents

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68

Cholesterol

A common steroid present in animal sources such as meat, fish, eggs, and liver

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69

Monomer of Nucleic Acid

Nucleotide

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70

Bond in Nucleic Acid

Phosphodiester Bond

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Five-carbon sugar (deoxyribose) Phosphate Nitrogen base

Each nucleotide is made up of a nucleotide monomer consisting of three components:

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72

Purines

  • Double-ring

  • Ex. Adenine (A) and Guanine (G)

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Pyrimidine

  • Single-ring

  • Ex. Cytosine ©, Thymine (T), and Uracil (U)

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74

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

  • Carries or store the genetic information in all organisms

  • Blueprint of traits e.g. eye color, height, or even diseases

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[Eukaryotes] : Nucleus, Mitochondria, and Chloroplast

Location [Prokaryotes]: Specialized region in the cytoplasm called nucleoid

Location of DNA

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Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Cytosine (C) Thymine (T)

Nitrogenous Bases of DNA

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DNA

  • Double helix that resembles a spiral staircase

  • 5' to 3' direction

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Antiparallel Orientation

  • Necessary for DNA Copying

  • The 5' end of one strand is connected to the 3' end of its corresponding strand

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79

Ribonucleic Acid

Involved in the synthesis of protein, regulation of genes, and also a carrier of genetic information in some viruses

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[Eukaryote] - Nucleus [Prokaryotes] - Cytoplasm

Location of RNA

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81

Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Cytosine (C) Thymine (T)

Nitrogenous Bases of DNA

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82

DNA

  • Double helix that resembles a spiral staircase

  • 5' to 3' direction

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83

Ribonucleic Acid

Involved in the synthesis of protein, regulation of genes, and also a carrier of genetic information in some viruses

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84

Nitrogenous Bases of DNA

adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine

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85

Partial Hydrogenation

Done by attaching hydrogen atoms onto the carbons that makes it chemically look and taste like saturated fats

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86

Adenine - Uracil (A-U) Cytosine - Guanine (C-G)

Nitrogenous pairing in RNA

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87

mRNA

  • Messenger RNA

  • Intermediate between a protein-coding gene and its protein product

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88

mRNA

Makes a copy of the DNA sequence of the gene in the process of transcription

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89

rRNA

  • Ribosomal RNA

  • Major component of ribosomes

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90

rRNA

Helps bind mRNA in the right place so that it can read out its sequence information

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91

tRNA

  • Transfer RNA

  • Responsible for choosing the right amino acid to carry with a cell to the ribosome

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92

tRNA

After receiving the correct amino acid from tRNA, the the ribosome will make the proper protein our body needs in the process of translation

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93

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

RNA nucleotide with an adenine base and 3 phosphate group and a ribose sugar.

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94

Amino Acid

Monomer of Protein

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95

Peptide Nonds

Bond in Protein

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96

PROTEINS

Composed of elements: C, H, O, and N

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Roles of Protein

Building as tissues Acting as enzymes Aiding the immune system Serves as hormones

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98

7 function of protein

Enzyme Catalysts Defense Transport Support Motion Regulation Storage

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99

Central carbon Amine Group Carboxyl Group R group

Amino Acids contain:

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100

R group

distinguish the amino acids from one another; hence, they have diverse chemical structures

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