Final ANZ Exam

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What is Immune system?

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110 Terms

1

What is Immune system?

body’s defense against foreign substances

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2

Definition of Antigen

Something foreign that triggers immune system response

(Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, Protozoa, Parasites)

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3

The immune system consists of:

  • Skin and mucosal tissues

  • Bone Marrow

  • Thymus

  • Bloodstream

  • Lymphatic system

  • Spleen

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4

Skin and mucosal tissues Definition

Entry point for pathogens, immune tissue located here, antimicrobial proteins produced

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5

What is Bone Marrow?

contains stem cells that can develop into a variety of cell types (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, monocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, Natural Killer cells, B and T cells)

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What is Thymus?

T cells mature here

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7

Definition of Bloodstream

circulates immune cells

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8

What is Lymphatic system?

  • Network of vessels and tissues composed of lymph, extracellular fluid, and lymph nodes, where  immune cells sample information brought in from the body

  • Part of the inflammation system

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9

What is Spleen?

Part of the lymphatic system, important for processing information from the bloodstream, removes debris and dead cells from the blood

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10

What are the functions of the immune system?

  • Function of the immune system is to prevent or limit infection.

  • It is important that the immune system distinguish between cells that are self and non-self.

  • If the immune system can not respond quickly enough or fully, then an infection can take hold.

  • Sometimes the immune system will respond to ‘false alarms’ allowing for allergic reactions and autoimmune disease.

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11

What are Three Layers of Immunity?

  • Skin

  • Cell mediated

  • Production of Antibodies

  • Happens at the same time.

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12

Is Red Blood cells and White blood cells part of Immunity System?

Red Blood cells is not part of Immunity system but White Blood cells does.

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13

How does skin provides immunity?

Provides a physical and chemical barrier (contains antimicrobial proteins, immune cells, pH, saliva, tears, stomach acid, shedding dead cells may eliminate pathogens)

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14

How does cell mediated provides immunity?

Nonspecific response

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15

How does Production of Antibodies provides immunity?

  • Specifically created in response to an infection

  • Large protein molecules that bind to antigens making them harmless

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16

What are in Cell Mediated system: WBCs?

  • Neutrophils

  • Monocytes

  • Eosinophils

  • Basophils

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17

What is Neutrophils?

1st responder, phagocytize and digest pathogens eat pathogens

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18

What is Monocytes?

turn into macrophages which leave the blood vessels and eat pathogens. chemokine production sends distress signal

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19

What is Eosinophils?

attack parasites

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20

What is Basophils?

contain histamine and help with allergies

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21

What is Lymphocytes?

produce antibodies & are slower to react

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22

What are three major types of lymphocytes?

  • T- Cells

  • B- Cells

  • Natural Killer (NK) Cells

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23

What are T cells?

from Thymus, responsible for cellular immunity

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24

What are B cells?

responsible for humoral immunity and production of antibodies (upon second encounter)

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What are Natural Killer (NK) Cells?

  • NK cells play a major role in defending the host from both tumors or virally  infected cells

  • Prevents Cancer

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26

What is Primary Immunization?

Boosters and/or first shots for dogs.

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27

When do you vaccinate pregnant Dogs?

Pregnant dogs needs to be vaccinate before gestation/breeding

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28

What are the Antibodies?

  • MDA

  • IgM

  • IgG

  • sLgA

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29

What is MDA?

maternally derived antibody (Mother’s Milk has antibodies)

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30

What is IgM

immunoglobulin M -a class of antibody generally short lived and associated with early infection and initial vaccination (First Vaccines)

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31

What is IgG?

immunoglobulin G - a class of humoral antibody; most common type associated with immune response to parenteral vaccine; also the most common class of antibody measured as serum titers

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32

What is sIgA?

  • secretory immunoglobulin A-a class of antibody, most commonly associated with a local (mucosal)immune response after IN vaccination

  • For the nose- Kennel Cough

  • Might prevent Infection

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33

How do vaccines work?

  • Vaccines prevents diseases not infection

  • Vaccines work by presenting an inactivated  disease particle to the immune system so that, when it encounters the particle again, it can mount an immune response and prevent or limit widespread disease

  • Vaccination achieves immune memory without having actual infection

  • If your immune response is strong enough, it will kill the invading organism and you will not know that you have been infected or your illness will be mild

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34

What are the ways that Vaccines can be made?

  • Killed Antigen

  • MLV Modified live

  • Recombinant

  • Bacterin/Toxoid

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How are Killed Antigen Vaccine Made?

  • inactivated vaccine antigen (viral or bacterial)

  • Safer vaccine to administer

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How are MLV Modified live Vaccine made?

  • (attenuated) contain a small quantity of virus or bacteria that has been altered so that it no longer is capable of causing clinical disease but is still capable of infection and multiplying in the animal

  • Better Vaccine to administer

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37

How are Recombinant Vaccine made?

small piece of DNA is taken from the virus or bacterium against which we want to protect and inserted into the manufacturing cells.

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38

How are Bacterin/Toxoid Vaccine made?

By using killed bacteria

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39

What are the ways to do administrate a vaccine/shots?

  • SQ subcutaneous

  • IM intramuscular

  • IN intranasal or mucosal

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40

What are the types of Vaccines?

  • Bb Bordetella bronchiseptica

  • CAV-1 canine adenovirus, type 1 (cause of canine viral hepatitis); protection from CAV-1 infection is provided by parenterally administered CAV-2 vaccine

  • CAV-2 canine adenovirus, type 2

  • CDV canine distemper virus

  • CIV canine influenza virus—H3N8

  • CPiV canine parainfluenza virus

  • CPV-2 canine parvovirus, type 2

  • MV measles virus

  • RV rabies virus

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41

Which Vaccines are Core for Dogs?

  • Rabies

  • Distemper

  • Parvovirus

  • Adenovirus-2

  • Parainfluenza

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42

Which Vaccines are Non-Core for Dogs?

  • Bordetella bronchiseptica + canine parainfluenza virus

  • Bordetella bronchiseptica only

  • Leptospira

  • Borrelia burgdorferi

  • Canine Influenza Virus-H3N8

  • Canine Influenza Virus-H3N2

  • Crotalus atrox (Western Diamondback Rattlesnake)

  • Borrelia burgdorferi (canine Lyme disease)

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43

When do you do Core Vaccines for Dogs?

  • Administered every 3-4 weeks from 6-16 weeks

  • Booster in one year

  • Then not more often than every three years

  • RV depends on regulations

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44

When do you do Non-Core Vaccines for Dogs?

  • Prior to exposure

  • Repeat as needed

  • Most need annual booster

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45

How much do you give a vaccine for any dog?

The size and weight of the any breed not matter for vaccines.

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46

What does Ataxia Mean?

a neurological disorder that causes problems with balance and coordination characterized by a swaying, staggering gait

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47

What is Rabies?

  • Virus, Fatal

  • Zoonotic. Since vaccination(1960) the majority of cases are in wild animals

  • Usually carried by wild carnivores- skunks, raccoon, fox, bats in Montana

  • All mammals are susceptible to rabies

  • Usually spread by direct contact-saliva

  • Attacks the nervous system

  • Core vaccine- protocol regulated by state law.

  • 12-20 weeks, booster in one year, thereafter every 3 years ( MT)

  • Rabies-Red-On Right

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48

What are two forms of Rabies?

  • “furious” and “dumb”

  • The first symptoms are non-specific and flu like

  • Progresses to cerebral dysfunction, ataxia, paralysis, seizures, abnormal behavior, self mutilation, aggression

  • Animals that have rabies can not drink.

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49

What is Distemper?

  • Viral, Highly contagious, Often fatal

  • Spread by direct contact with infected secretions or fomites

  • Virus is short lived in the environment

  • Affects G.I. Tract Respiratory tract and Nervous System

  • Mucoid eye discharge, then fever, nasal discharge, cough, inappetence, vomiting and diarrhea.

  • Once it gets to the nervous system, dogs show circling, head tilt, muscle tremors, chewing gum seizures – myoclonus, grand mal, seizures, paralysis

  • Immunity after natural infection is lifelong, vaccination provides short-term immunity

  • Use Human Measles Vaccines for young puppies

  • Dogs surviving often show a thickening and hardening of the footpads and enamel loss of the teeth

  • Treatment = none, nursing care provided, prevention of secondary infection

  • Canine distemper also found in wildlife – wolves!

  • If they live after distemper, they are immune.

  • Have a hard nose after surviving it

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50

What is Nursing Care?

Giving them Fluids

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51

What is Secretion?

Respiratory (Eye, nasal, cough, vomiting)

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52

What is Excretion?

Feces & Urine

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53

What are the info about Measles Vaccine?

Attenuated Measles Vaccine is a heterologous, single-dose (do not booster) vaccine for administration to young dogs (not less than 6 wk of age and not older than 12 wk of age) as a means of protecting young dogs (only) against canine distemper virus. The Measles vaccine must be administered by the intramuscular (IM) route.

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54

What is ParvoVirus?

  • Known as “Bloody Diarrhea”

  • The virus that causes the disease known as “parvo”, canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV), first emerged among dogs in Europe around 1976. By 1978 the virus had spread unchecked, causing a worldwide epidemic

  • Mutated from feline panleukopenia virus (Cats)

  • Young puppies and unvaccinated dogs of any age

  • Affects G.I. tract- Vomiting and diarrhea, anorexia, increased/decreased temperature, lethargy, dehydration

  • Treatment- nursing care and prevention of secondary infection

  • With aggressive treatment 50/50 chance of survival.Without-80% mortality.

  • Transmitted by direct contact with infected dogs or indirect contact with contaminated surfaces

  • Fomites: bowls, kennels, collars, toys

  • The most resistant on all viruses 1-3 years in soil

  • Resistant to some disinfectants-bleach is effective.

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55

What is Canine Adenovirus-2?

  • Hard to diagnosis

  • Infectious canine hepatitis caused by Adenovirus-1

  • Varies from no clinical signs to coagulation disorders and death

  • Spread through contact with infected urine/feces/saliva

  • Recovered dogs shed virus in their urine for >6 months

  • Starts with a high fever, then shows anorexia, serous eye discharge, petechia of the oral mucosa, subcutaneous edema of the head, neck, and thorax

  • Treatment- none, nursing care and prevention of secondary infection

  • Vaccination protects against both type 1 and 2.

  • Type 2 causes respiratory disease

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56

What is petechia?

Dot bleeding in the mouth

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57

What is Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease

Complex - CIRDC?

  • Aka- Kennel Cough

  • Infectious tracheobronchitis

  • Parainfluenza virus + Bordetella + Adenovirus 2

  • Stress and environmental factors!

  • Bordetella Non-core but often required for boarding

  • Recommended for times of high exposure-kennels

  • Honking cough with spit up

  • Shed in respiratory droplets for 2 weeks after symptoms have cleared

  • Protocol 2 doses then yearly.

  • Bordetella IN and Oral (Nose) more effective than SQ

  • Reverse Sneeze vs a cough

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58

What is Leptospirosis?

  • Bacteria transmitted through ground water

  • Freezing – Thawing,  & Drought kills it

  • 4 serovars, 4-way vaccine

  • Causes kidney and/or liver disease

  • Not common in Montana

  • Vax where risk of exposure

  • Zoonotic – Flu like

  • Comes from Rats in Urban places or Farm Ponds

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59

What are other Non core disease/Vaccines?

  • Lyme Disease

  • Rattlesnake Vaccine

  • Canine Influenza

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60

What is Lyme Disease?

  • transmitted by ticks, vaccine available for dogs in high exposure

  • Vax if plan to travel to endemic area

  • 2 doses, 2-4 w apart with 2nd dose 2-4 w before travel

  • Treatable with antibodies if caught early

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What is Rattlesnake Vaccine?

  • for dogs in high exposure, not a preventative, just buys more time to get to snake bite treatment

  • Western Diamondback

  • Only use if defined risk

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62

What is Canine Influenza?

  • H3N8/H3N2 –not highly pathogenic

  • The new one is H3N2, need to vax for both if indicate (not core vaccine though)

  • The H3N8 canine influenza virus represents a very rare event in adaptive evolution; mutated from H3N8 equine influenza virus was transferred to dogs, and the virus adapted to the canine species to emerge as a new canine-specific virus.

  • H3N2 canine influenza appeared limited to Korea, China and Thailand until March 2015, when an outbreak that started in the Chicago area was determined to be due to an H3N2 strain of an avian influenza virus.

  • The incubation period is usually two to four days from exposure to onset of clinical signs. The highest amounts of viral shedding occur during this time; therefore, dogs are most contagious during this 2-4 day incubation period when they are not exhibiting signs of illness.

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63

What is Parental Vaccine?

  • SQ subcutaneous or IM intramuscular

  • Series of Vaccines

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64

What is Dog Coronavirus?

  • Not Covid-19 from pandemic

  • Canine coronavirus (CCV) vaccination is not recommended on the grounds that infection:

  • (1) causes mild or subclinical disease,

  • (2) generally occurs in dogs 6 wk of age and younger, and

  • (3) is typically self-limiting.

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65

What are the differences between Canine and Human Vision?

  • Humans are diurnal while dogs descended from wolves which are nocturnal

  • Dogs have less variable pupil sizes (3-4 mm) compared with human pupil variability (1-9 mm).

  • Dogs also have less sclera than humans.

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66

What is Peripheral Vision?

  • Placement of eyes is more lateral in canines, allowing for 240-270 degree panoramic view compared to 180 degrees in humans

  • Dogs’ peripheral vision is better than ours due to a larger number of rods (3x)

  • Dogs have less stereoscopic/binocular vision (area in which eyes overlap)

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67

What are the parts of the Eye?

  • Pupil

  • Lens

  • Cornea

  • Retina

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68

What is Pupil?

opening in the center of the eye that allows light to pass through

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What is Lens?

focuses light on the retina (adjustable)

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70

What is Cornea?

  • focuses light on the retina (not adjustable)

  • Has no blood vessels in it

  • Prone to Infection

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71

What is Retina in the eye?

  • back surface of the eye that is lined by photoreceptors

  • light from above strikes bottom and light from below strikes top

  • light from left strikes right side and vice versa

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72

How does the Vison works?

  • The brain “sees,” not our eyes!

  • Dogs recognize things by moving

  • Light rays bounce off objects in all directions, but we see only those that strike the retina (we see because light strikes our eyes)

  • Visual receptors are specialized to absorb light and transduce (convert) it into an electrochemical pattern in the brain

  • Missing Red color in the vision

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What the timeline of how Vision happens?

  1. Light bounces off objects around us

  2. light is refracted as it enters the cornea

  3. through the pupil

  4. through the lens, where refraction occurs again

  5. light is focused onto the retina

  6. retinal ganglion cells convert light to electrical signals (phototransduction)

  7. signals are sent to the brain via the optic nerve

  8. signals are sent through neural pathways to the visual cortex, which converts electrical signals to a picture

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74

What are Photoreceptors are made out?

Rods and Cones

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75

What are rods in the eyes?

  • Light

  • Periphery of retina

  • Sensitivity/Contrast/movement

  • night vision

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76

What are Cones in the eyes?

  • Area centralis

  • acuity

  • color vision

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77

Why do Dogs have better night and low-light vison better than humans?

  • Greater concentration of rods compared to humans

  • Tapetum lucidum (“carpet of light”) - reflective layer behind retina

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78

What is Acuity?

sharpness or keenness of thought, vision, or hearing

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79

What are the differences in humans and dogs for Acuity?

  • Dogs have worse acuity than humans because they do not have foveae (only primates have foveae)

  • Some dogs have an area centralis - broad central region with fewer receptors than foveae (varies by breed) while others have a visual streak

  • Dogs have 20/75 vision (6x less acute) compared to human 20/20 vision

  • Sight hounds (dolichocephalic breeds) have a “visual streak” (greater no. of retinal ganglion cells) on retina, giving wide field of vision (~270º)

  • Short-nosed (brachycephalic) dogs have centralized concentration of retinal cells, giving more detailed vision, but narrower field

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80

Are Dogs Colorblind?

  • Not completely…dogs rely less on color than humans (dogs have 1/10th cones of humans)

  • Dogs are dichromats (only have two types of cones, one sensitive to bluish purple and one to greenish-yellow)

  • Dogs can pick out two colors: blue/violet and yellow, as well as shades of gray (green, yellow, orange, and red are not distinguishable)

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81

Can My Dog See the Television?

  • Flicker-fusion rate - number of “snapshots” of world eyes take every second (60 cycles/s humans)

  • Films and digital tv must exceed this rate only slightly

  • Dogs have ffr at 70-80 cycles/s

  • Akinetopsia: normal vision as Human vision: dog vision

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82

What is Lenticular (Nuclear) sclerosis?

  • Sclerosis means harden

  • age-related change in density of crystalline lens is common in older dogs

  • In the lens not cornea

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83

What is Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA)?

  • genetic disease of the retina

  • PRA usually affects rods initially, and then cones in later stages of the disease

  • affected dogs are nightblind, later daytime vision also fails

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84

What is Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA)?

  • defect in formation of the eye

  • single recessive gene

  • small percentage will have detached retinas and be blind

  • detection is important

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85

What is CERF?

  • Canine Eye Registration Foundation

  • registers those dog's certified free of heritable eye disease by board certified Veterinary Ophthalmologists (A.C.V.O. ),

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86

What is SARDS?

  • Sudden Acquired Retinal Degeneration Syndrome

  • One of the leading causes of incurable canine vision loss

  • Sudden blindness with polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria and recent weight gain

  • Cause is widespread loss of function of photoreceptors in the retina

  • Still unknown why

  • Seen predominately in middle-aged, spayed female, mixed breed dogs

  • Also seen in the following small breeds: Beagle, Bichon frise, Brittany spaniel, Cocker spaniel, Dachshund, Maltese, Miniature schnauzer, Pomeranian, and Pug

  • Drinks a lot and pees a lo

  • Not in pain just can’t see

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87

What are the Structures of the ear?

  • Outer ear or pinna

  • Middle Ear

  • Inner Ear or cochlea

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88

What is Outer ear or pinna?

  • cartilage attached to the side of the head that alters reflections and helps locate sounds

  • No data on size/shape of pinna influencing hearing

  • literally just two layer of skin together with blood vessels in between.

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89

Does Cropping Ears affects the hearing?

  • No it does not.

  • Floppy ears does not affect the hearing either. (Floppy ears are actually “man-made”)

  • Presented as a style for dogs

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90

What is an otoscope?

Its a tool to investigate a dog’s ear

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91

What is Middle Ear?

  • The tympanic membrane/eardrum is a thin tissue that separates the external and inner ear

  • Membrane vibrates at the same frequency as incoming sound waves and causes three ossicles (tiny bones) to shift

  • Tympanic membrane varies by size of dog, but does not seem to lead to great variability in hearing (Heffner, 1983)

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92

What is a Inner ear or Cochlea?

  • Vibration of ossicles on oval window, membrane leading to inner ear (cochlea)

  • Cilia or tiny hair-like structures (auditory receptors) lie between basilar and tectorial membranes

  • Vibrations in cochlea displace hair cells

  • hair cells sensitive to movement of 0.1 nm or more, opening ion channels

  • Hair cells excite cells of auditory nerve, changing sound impulses into electrical impulses

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93

How does the Hearing Works?

  1. Sound enters the ear and vibrates the TM

  2. moves the hammer

  3. moves the anvil

  4. which moves the stapes

  5. vibration moves perilymph in the Cochlea (or Semicircular canals) creating pressure changes causing a fluid wave

  6. wave moves through the cochlear duct (or Semicircular canals)

7)The Cochlear duct is lined with a Basilar membrane, which contains stereocilia (Hair Cells).  The fluid wave moves the Hair Cells , triggering nervous impulses in their neurons, which travel through the Vestibulocochlear nerve to the brain

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94

How does Sound waves work for dogs?

  • Sound waves are periodic compressions of air molecules that create vibrations

  • we hear when the sound waves in air strike our ear

  • We can hear 64 to 23,000 hertz (Hz = cycles per second = # of repetitions of waveform that occur per second)…varies with age

  • Dogs can detect sounds from 67 to 45,000 hertz (ultrasonic or ultrasound)

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95

How does the changes in Pitch affects the dog?

  • Dogs are able to detect changes in pitch, stress, and intonation (i.e., prosody) nearly as well as humans

  • This allows dogs to hear raised pitch of questions among English speakers (e.g., “Do you want a cookie?”)

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96

Why do Dogs Bark?

  • Different forms of attention-getting (e.g., stranger, isolation, and play barks)

  • Human conversation is 60 db, while dog bark is 70-130 db!

  • Bark frequencies range from 10-2000 hertz, in range of speech

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97

What are Alar folds?

Directs air in and & of nose

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98

How does Olfaction works?

  • Enters & is sent to olfactory or respiratory tract

  • 12-13% goes to the olfactory, the the remaining goes to the lungs.

  • Left nostril works with familiar, non-aversive orders

  • Right Nostril are first sniffs for novel, threatening, or arousing (adrenaline)

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99

What is the order of how smell works?

  1. Nose

  2. Alar folds

  3. Maxilloturbinates

  4. Ethmtorbinates (where the sampling happens)

  5. Epithelium (Where olfactory receptors are)

  6. Olfactory bulb

  7. Brain

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100

What are the Impacts on Odor detection?

  • Sex (especially females)

  • Breed (size of the nose, willing to work)

  • Diseases

  • Environment

  • Age ( older = longer memory to remember smells)

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