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Intestinal Obstruction

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1

Intestinal Obstruction

-Mechanical or functional blockage of the intestines -S&S- Severe pain; nausea; vomiting; electrolyte imbalance ~Occurs when the contents of the intestine cannot move forward because of partial/complete blockage of the bowel; mechanical: neoplasm; foreign bodies; volvulus (twisting of the bowel on itself); intussusception (the bowel telescopes into itself); strangulated hernia

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Diverticulosis

-Progressive condition characterized by defects in the muscular wall of the large bowel -S&S- usually causes no symptoms; blood in stool; diarrhea; difficulty in defecation ~Lack of roughage; outpouches (diverticula) of the mucosa penetrate weak points in the muscular layer of the large intestine

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Diverticulitis

-Infection of one or more of the diverticula -S&S- Abdominal pain or tenderness ~When one or more of the diverticula become inflamed due to to trapped fecal matter; lack of dietary bulk, inadequate fluid intake, and constipation

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Colorectal Cancer

-Cancer of the colon and rectum -S&S- Abdominal pain, change in bowel habits; bloody stools; weight loss; cachexia (wasting disorder linked with malnutrition); lymphadenopathy (disease of the lymph nodes) ~Risk increases with age; adenomatous polyps

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Pseudomembranous Enterocolitis

-Bowel mucosa has a membranous appearance -S&S-mild to severe greenish, foul smelling watery diarrhea; nausea; vomiting ~use of broad spectrum antibiotics; antibiotic therapy reduces the body's natural intestinal flora and allows a bacterial infection with C. difficile to develop

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Short-Bowel Syndrome

-Small bowel fails to absorb nutrients because of inadequate absorptive surface -S&S- malnutrition; diarrhea; abnormal stools; brittle nails and hair ~Length of intact or functioning small bowel is altered significantly by disease or surgery; Chron's diesease; intestinal farction; volvulus; tumor resection

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Irritable Bowel Syndrome

-Functional bowel disorder of motility: chronic abdominal pain or discomfort; bloating; erratic dysfunction of bowel habits -S&S- change of bowel habits with predominant diarrhea or constipation; bloating; abdominal distention ~Unknown cause

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Peritonitis

-Inflammation of the peritoneum -S&S- abdominal pain; nausea; vomiting; weakness; profuse sweating ~inflammatory process of peritonitis has the potential to cause abscesses and adhesions to form in the abdominal cavity; primary infection caused by blood borne organisms

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Hemorrhoids

-Varicose dilations of a vein in the anal canal or the anorectal area -Often painless; rectal pain; itching; protrusion; or bleeding after defecation ~Veins in rectal and anal area become varicose, swollen, and tender as a result of blockage

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Cirrhosis of the Liver

-Slow deterioration of the liver due to replacement of normal liver cells with hard fibrous scar tissue -S&S- loss of appetite and weight; nausea and vomiting; indigestion ~Chronic alcoholism; malnutrition; hepatitis

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Viral Hepatitis

-Inflammation of the liver -S&S- jaundice;anorexia; malaise; fever nausea; dark urine

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Hepatitis A

-Infectious hepatitis; highly contagious ~transmitted by fecal-oral route from contaminated food, water, and stools

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Hepatitis B

-Serum hepatitis -S&S- can mimic flu ~Sexual contact or blood exchange from the sharing of contaminated needles

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Hepatitis C

-Transmitted mainly through blood transfusions (by blood and body fluids) ~Working in health care environment is a risk factor

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Cancer of the Liver (Hepatocarcinoma)

-Liver cancer -S&S- upper abdominal pain; weight loss; jaundice ~Hepatitis B

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Cholelithiasis

-Abnormal presence of gallstones that form in bile -S&S- Nausea and vomiting ~Insoluble cholesterol and bile salts

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Cholecystitis

-Inflammation of the gallbladder -S&S- nausea; vomiting; fever; jaundice; dark urine ~Obstruction of the biliary duct caused by gallstones; trauma or insult including infection

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Acute and Chronic Pacreatitis

-Inflammation of the pancreas -S&S- severe abdominal pain; nausea; vomiting; patient is diaphoretic (profuse perspiration) and tachyycardiac (rapid heartbeat); mild jaundice ~Protein- and lipid-digesting enzymes become activated within the pancreas and begin to digest the pancreas itself (autodigestion)

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Pancreatic Cancer

-Cancer of the pancreas -S&S- abdominal pain; weight loss; jaundice; nausea; vomiting; acholic (without bile) stools ~Cigarette smoking; obesity

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Malnutrition

-Disorder of nutrition caused by primary deprivation of protein-energy -Loss of energy; diarrhea; drastic weight change; loss of hair; poor nails ~Kwashiorkor: deficiency of protein in the presence of adequate energy; Marasmus: extreme malnutrition and emaciation

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Malabsorption Syndrome

-Group of disorders in which intestinal absorption of dietary nutrients is impaired -S&S- abdominal discomfort; bloating with gas; chronic diarrhea ~Defective mucosla stools in the small intestine

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Celiac Disease (Gluten Enteropathy)

-Disease of SI characterized by malabsorption, gluten intolerance, ad damage to the lining of the intestine -S&S- weight loss; anorexia; diarrhea; flatulence (gas)

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Food Poisoning

-Illness that results from eating food that contains bacterial toxins and viral, chemical, or toxic substances -S&S- malaise; fever; nausea; vomiting ~Food contaminated with bacteria or toxins

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Anorexia Nervosa

-Eating disorder hunger is denied by self- imposed starvation -S&S- sadness; insomnia; thinning hair; cold intolerance; bloating

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Bulimia

-Binge eating followed by self induced vomiting or purging -S&S- compulsive exercise; vomiting; broken blood vessels in the eye ~Uncertain

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Motion Sickness

-Loss of equilibrium experience during motion -S&S- nausea, vomiting, air hunger, excessive salivation, sweating ~Disturbance in the sense of balance; fluid in the semicircular canals of the ears becomes dislocated because of the motion

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symptons of respiratory tract problems

chest pain,dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis, dysphonia, chills, fever, wheezing fatigue

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common cold/URI(Upper respiratory infection)

acute inflammation that affects the mucous membrane of the URT(upper respiratory tract)

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sinusitis

acute/chronic inflammation of the mucous membranes of the paranasal sinuses

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pharyngitis/sore throat

acute/chronic inflammation/infection of the pharynx

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lymphadenopathy

Any disease process affecting a lymph node or nodes

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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

a cancer that arises from epithelium of the nasopharynx, rare in US, common in southern China, most pts with enlarged cervical lymph nodes, 4 histopathologic patterns are seen

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epistaxis

Nosebleed

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laryngitis

inflammation of the larynx causes aphonia

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deviated septem

crooked cartilage partition between the nostrils

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nasal polyps

benign growths that form as a consequence of distended mucous membranes protruding into the nasal cavity

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anosmia

loss/impairment of the sense of smell

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tumors of the larynx

benign/malignant; , growths or tumors on the larynx, e benign or malignant, dysphonia is usually the only symptom of a tumor on the larynx, in children w/ tumors, a high-pitched stridor is present because of their small airways,

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laryngeal cancer

Cancer of the throat is cancer of the vocal chords, voice box (larynx), or other areas of the throat

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TNM system

Tumor, Node, Metastasis - dveloped by American Joint Committee on Cancer, system to describe the general anatomic extent of cancers. not useful for leukemia or lymphomas

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hemoptysis

Coughing up blood

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exsanguination

Loss of blood to the point where life can no longer be sustained.

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atelectasis

Collapsed lung; incomplete expansion of alveoli

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pulmonary embolism

A blood clot that breaks off from a large vein and travels to the blood vessels of the lung, causing obstruction of blood flow.

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tachypnea

Fast breathing

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pneumonia

An inflammation of lung tissue, wherer the alveoli in the affected areas fill w/fluid

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pulmonary abscess

cavity of contained infectious material in the lung

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SARS

severe acute respiratory syndrome; CORONAVIRUS

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legionellosis (Legionnaires' disease and pontiac fever)

form of pneumonia that is caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophilia

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Respiratory Synctial virus pneumonia

an inflammatory and infectious condition of the lungs

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histoplasmosis

fungal disease originating in the lungs that is caused by inhalation of the dust containing Histoplasma capsulatum

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acute/chronic bronchitis

inflammation of the mucous membrane

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bronchiectasis

A chronic congenital or acquired disease characterized by abnormal dilatation of the bronchi and excessive sputum production

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asthma

A chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing.

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COPD

(Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is comprised primarily of three related conditions chronic bronchitis, chronic asthma, and emphysema. in each condition there is chronic obstruction of the flow of air through the airwaves and out of the lungs and the obstruction Generally is permanent and may be progressive overtime

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pulmonary emphysema

chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder characterized by destructive changes in the alveolar walls and irreversible enlargement of alveolar air spaces

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rhonchi

A whistling or snoring sound heard on auscultation of the chest when air channels are partially obstructed

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HEPTOMEGALY

abnormal enlargement of the liver

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pneumoconiosis

Abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs, with chronic inflammation, infection, and bronchitis.

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asbestosis

lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos particles

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anthracosis

A lung disease caused by inhalation of coal dust. Also called coal-miner's lung or black lung disease.

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silicosis

caused by inhaling silica dust in the lungs and usually occurs after working in occupations including foundry work, quarrying, ceramics, glass work, and sandblasting

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pleurisy/itis

inflammation of the membranes surrounding the lungs and lining the pleural cavity

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pneumothorax

collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity that results in a collapsed or partially collapsed lung

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hemothorax

accumulation of blood and fluid in the pleural cavity

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flail chest

condition of instability in the chest wall caused by multiple rib fractures; the sternum also may be fractrured

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TB

A contagious bacterial infection that involves the lungs, but may spread to other organs

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infectious mononucleosis/ Epstein-barr virus infection

glandular fever an acute herspesvirus infection; cause lymphadenopathy and fever; passed through kissing, blood transfusion, organ donation

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ARDS

(Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) also a sudden onset of severe lung dysfunction affecting both lungs, making breathing extremely difficult.

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sarcoidosis

A disease that causes inflammation and microscopic nodules called granulomas that affect almost all systems of the body

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lung cancer

Highly malignant form developing from a constant irritation of chemicals from tobacco or other air born pollutants within the lung. Obstruction of airways is common. Metastasis to lymph nodes, liver, bone and brain is high. Found in 90% of all smokers. Survival rate is about 7%. Treatment is the removal of lung, radiation and chemotherapy.

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72

Which layer of the eyeball is inflamed in uveitis?

vascular tunic

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A neoplasm of mesenchymal origin

sarcoma

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Presence of microbial toxins in the blood overwhelms the immune system and produces a whole-body inflammatory state.

sepsis

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75

A host and a microbe exist with no harm to either

commensialism

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What is the end product?

pluripotent stem cell > myeloid stem cell > erythroblast > reticulocyte > ???

erythrocyte

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77

Oblong lens, irregular shape of the lens and/or cornea

astigmatism

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Characterized by the sudden onset of petechiae and purpura in young children

idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

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Where does erythropoiesis occur after age 20?

ribs, sternum, and pelvis

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Presence of M cells in serum without findings of multiple myeloma

monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

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Based on anaplasia and uses Roman numerals I-IV

grading

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82

Autosomal deficiency or defect in vWf

Von Willebrand disease

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A factor IX deficiency is involved in this

hemophilia B

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Purple areas of bruising

purpura

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A decrease in the absolute number of cells

hypoplasia (but can be generalized as atrophy)

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Cellular engulfment, killing and degradation of microorganisms and particulate matter

phagocytosis

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These are not leukocytes

reticulocytes

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Exudate that contains pus and mucus

mucopurulent

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An abnormal passageway between two endothelium-lined organs or between two blood vessels that don't normally connect

fistula

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What is the end product?

pluripotent stem cell > myeloid stem cell > granulocyte > ???

eosinophil, neutrophil, and basophil

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Elements: painless lymphadenopathy night sweats Reed Sternburg cells

Hodgkin's lymphoma

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92

Low frequency hearing loss originated from the middle or external ear

conductive hearing loss

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Involves debris collecting between the retina and the choroid

dry macular degeneration

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Microvascular disease characterized by

  • widespread platelet thrombi

  • thrombocytopenia

  • fragmentation of erythrocytes causing hemolytic anemia and jaundice

thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

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Established by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, this is based on size and spread, involvement of lymph nodes, and the extent of metastasis

staging and TNM system

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Labile cells exist here

GI tract and blood

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Monocytes in connective tissue

histiocytes

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98

This disorder can manifest as a primary condition with signs of hypercoagulability or as a secondary contion associated with systemic lupus erythematosus

antiphospholipid syndrome

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Presenting symptoms of bone pain, weight loss and weakness

multiple myeloma

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An X-linked recessive disorder that affects the factor VIII gene

hemophilia A

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