World History Chapter 3: India

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which kingdom had become more powerful than any other state and where was it located?

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1

which kingdom had become more powerful than any other state and where was it located?

Magadha, the Ganges plain

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2

who is the key figure of jainsim

vardhamana mahavira

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3

Who is Vardhamana Mahavira?

son of the cheif, member of the warrior class

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4

what is Jainism based on

the doctrines of karma and rebirth

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5

why did jainists trade

becuase farming would kill the insects in the soil which they couldn't do

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6

lasting legacies of jainsim (2)

fasting and nonviolence

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7

Who was Buddha?

Siddhartha Gautama

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8

what does buddha mean

enlightened one

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9

who was Siddhartha Gautama

son of a chief and part of the warrior class

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10

What was the Enlightenment?

perfect insight into the process of the universe

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11

what did buddha urge

the middle way between asceticism and wordly life

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12

how did buddha attract followers

by preaching in the local language and not sanskrit

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13

what are the 4 noble truths

  1. pain and suffering, frustration and anxiety are ugly but inescapable parts of human life 2) suffering and anxiety are caused bu human desires and attachments 3) people can understand these weaknesses and triumph over them 4) this triumph is made possible by following simple code of conduct, the eightfold path

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14

how did Buddhism differ from Brahmanism

it ignored the caste system

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15

who could follow the eightfold path

everyone

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16

what does the eightfold path do

bring you to your own enlightenment

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17

what are the scriptures of the buddha called

sutras

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18

mahayana

a more inclusive form of buddhism

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19

what does mahayana mean

great vehicle

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20

who was placed at the head of the pantheon

buddha

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21

Why did Buddhism decline in India?

it was less popular than Hinduism and Islam

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22

what were rejections of brahmanic relgion

bhuddism and jainism

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23

what specifically did bhuddism and jainism reject from brahmanaic religion

the caste system

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24

What did Brahmanism develop into

Hinduism

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25

What is the goal of Hinduism?

to reach union with brahman

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26

what is the dharma for

people to observe it in their quest to reach union with brahman

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27

in hinduism can people worship personal gods

yes

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28

hinduisms embrace of ___ ____ ___ __ ___ enabled it to incorporate new sects doctrines beleifs and deities

a large pantheon of gods

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29

What is the Bhagavad Gita?

Hinduism's most popular sacred text

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30

can people have different dharmas

yes

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31

who unified all of north india

chandragupta

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32

what did chandragupta found

the mauryan empire

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33

what fostered contact between india and the near east

Persian control

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34

what was the relationship between the greeks and the indians

the greeks were impressed by the indians, Alexander overtook some of the states but he was mainly peaceful with the indians and he even debated with them

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35

who was the sole master of north india in 322 bce

chandragupta

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36

what influenced chandragupta in his rule

persian lessons

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37

What did Chandragupta do?

he divided india into provinces and assigned governors to them

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38

what religion was chandragupta

jain ascetic

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39

Who was Chandragupta's grandson

Ashoka

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40

what religion was ashoka

Buddhist

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41

what did ashoka do about religion

he spread bhuddism by making laws and using the machinery of his empire

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42

Why did the Mauryan Empire decline

ashokas died

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43

veda

to see, to know or meaning wisdom/knowledge

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44

Rig Veda

The earliest collection of Indian hymns, ritual texts, and philosophical treatises, it is the central source of information on early Aryans.

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45

Samsara

The transmigration of souls by a continual process of rebirth

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46

Karma

The tally of good and bad deeds that determines the status of an individual's next life.

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47

two big parts of ancient indian cosmology

samsara and karma

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48

Pantheon

all the gods of a people or religion

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49

Jainism

Indian religion whose followers consider all life sacred and avoid destroying other life

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50

Four Noble Truths

the most basic Buddhist teaching 1. The truth of Suffering

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51

Eightfold Path

The eight

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52

Buddhism ignored the caste system, so who could follow the Eightfold Path?

everyone

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53

Mahayana

The "Great Vehicle," everybody gets on board. Mahayana is completely inclusive. the raft is crossing over the turbulent river of samsara. The buddha is the pilot of the raft. The other shore is nirvana

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54

What is the meaning of Mahavira?

Great Conqueror/Great Hero

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55

What is significant about the title of Mahavira?

The title is significant because he conquered samsara.

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56

Who was the greatest teacher of Janism

Varhamana, Kshatriyan. Later the Mahavira

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57

What is the Jain teaching regarding living souls?

All living beings, plants, and animals have living souls and are scared. And non

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58

Ahimsa

nonviolence

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59

What was Siddhartha Gautama called?

Shakyamuni Buddha, the Sage of the Shaya Tribe

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60

What does Buddha mean?

enlightened one or awakened one

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61

What is the prophecy of the Buddha at birth?

He would either rule the world or redeem the world.

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62

When Siddhartha left his life of luxury, what did he become?

An ascetic

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63

What was Siddhartha Gautama looking for when he set out on his spiritual quest?

He was seeking freedom from suffering for all, freedom from the wheel of Samsara.

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64

What did Siddhartha discover?

The middle way, a way to live your life, the way between extremes.

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65

What is the metaphor Siddhartha used to explain the middle way to freedom

He uses a stringed musical instrument. As you tune the instrument, if the string are too loose (life of luxury) it will not play, if the strings are too tight the will break and not play (asceticism)

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66

What can Buddhism be compared too?

A great tree with deep roots and wide branches

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67

Siddhartha's Awakening

He sat for forty days under the Bo tree in Bodh Gaya, a small city in north India and a major pilgrimage site.

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68

What is the buddhas first teaching?

the 4 noble truths

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69

What is the meaning of Dharma in Buddhism?

Truth;the teachings of the Buddha

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70

What is Dharma in Hinduism?

moral duty and law

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71

Nirvana

the other shore, the end of suffering is referred to as nirvana, meaning to extinguish a flame, to chill.

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72

Bodhisattva

A great being who is enlightned or very close o it who chooses to stay in the world to help others on the path to awakening, to freedom from suffering

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73

What were direct challenges to the old Brahminic religion?

Buddhism and Janism

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74

What did both Buddhism and Jainism reject?

sacrificing Animals and the caste system

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75

What is the bedrock of Hinduism?

The belief that the Vedas are sacred revelations.

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76

What is the goal of Hinduism?

Hindiuis is a guide to life, the goal of which is to reach union with Braham, the ultimate unchaining realty.

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77

What do Hindus refer to their religion as?

the eternal way

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78

What is an avatar?

an incarnation or manifestation of the one God.

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79

What is the central ethical Hindu text

Bhagavad Gita

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80

What is the capital of the Mauryan Empire

Pataliputra, one of the greatest citie sof the anicent world

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81

Megasthenes

Greek ambassador who wrote detailed descriptions of fabulous cosmopolitan metropolis.

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82

edict

an official order or proclamation

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83

who unified all of north india

chandragupta

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84

What happened during the kushan period (lasted to 250 ce)?

Greek culture impacted Indian art. Buddhist shrines were adorned. And coin cast images of kings became popular.

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85

What was codified in the period of 185 BCE

300 C.E?

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86

What metaphor is used to explain the first teachings of the Buddha?

dr. buddha

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87

who is the key figure of jainsim

vardhamana mahavira

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88

what was the relationship between the greeks and the indians

the greeks were impressed by the indians, Alexander overtook some of the states but he was mainly peaceful with the indians and he even debated with them

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89

What did Chandragupta do?

he divided india into provinces and assigned governors to them

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90

Who was Chandragupta's grandson?

ashoka, a buddhist

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91

Why did the Mauryan Empire decline?

Asoka died

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92

Brahmanism

focused not on a creator who made the univer out of nothing rather on endlessly reapting cycles. Ex: samsara and karma

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93

Moksha

release from samsara

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94

Brahman

The unchanging ultimate reality, according to the Upanishads.

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95

Atman

the individual soul, like a spark in brahman (the fire)

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96

mystic

one who seeks to understand spirtual truths and one's relationship with the divine or ultimate reality

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97

Asceticism

severe self

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98

What is the worlds longest epic poem?

Mahabharata

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99

Bhagavad Gita

is a guide on how to live in the world and yet honor the moral law and thus achieve release from the wheel of samsara. also known as "Song of the Lord'

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100

When did Jainism start?

the 7th century BCE

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