Medical Terminology - The Skeletal System

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From Medical Terminology for Medical Professions, Chp. 3

105 Terms

1

chrondr/o

cartilage

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2

oss/e, oss/i, oste/o, ost/o

bones

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3

myel/o

bone marrow

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4

arthr/o

joints

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5

ligament/o

ligaments

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6

synovi/o, synov/o

synovial membrane/fluid

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7

burs/o

bursa

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8

ankyl/o

crooked, bent, stiff

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9

cost/o

rib

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10

crani/o

skull

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11

-desis

to bind, tie together

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12

kyph/o

bent, hump

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13

lord/o

curve, swayback, bent

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14

-lysis

loosening or setting free

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15

scoli/o

curved, bent

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16

spondyl/o

vertebrae, vertebral column, backbone

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17

ossification

process of cartilage and membranes becoming bone, seen in infants

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18

periosteum

tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone

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19

compact bone (cortical bone)

compact bone, also known as cortical bone

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20

spongy bone (cancellous bone)

lighter and not as strong as compact bone, found in the ends and inner portions of long bones

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21

medullary cavity

central cavity located in the shaft of long bones, surrounded by compact bone, stores red and yellow marrow

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22

endosteum

tissue that lines the medullary cavity

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23

red bone marrow

hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes

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24

hemopoietic (hematopoietic)

pertaining to the formation of blood cells

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25

yellow bone marrow

fat storage area

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26

cartilage

smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones (and for nose, ears, etc)

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27

articular cartilage

covers the surfaces of bones at joints, makes smooth joint movement and protects bones from rubbing against each other

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28

meniscus

curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints, such as the knee and the temporomandibular joint of the jaw

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29

diaphysis

shaft of a long bone

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30

epiphyses

wider ends of long bones such as the femurs (proximal and distal epiphyses)

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31

foramen

opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass

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32

process

a normal projection on the surface of a bone that most commonly serves as an attachment for a muscle or tendon

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33

fibrous joints

inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, hold the bones tightly together (some fibrous joints are movable in infants and young children)

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34

fontanelles

normally present on the skull of a newborn, flexible soft spots for birth and skull growth in first year, eventually close and harden with age

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35

cartilaginous joints

allow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage (ex. ribs to sternum)

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36

synovial joint

two bones articulate to permit a variety of motions

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37

ball-and-socket joints

type of synovial joint that allows wide range of movement (ex. hips, shoulders)

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38

hinge joints

type of synovial joint that allows movement on one plane (ex. knees, elbows)

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39

synovial capsule

outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint

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40

synovial membrane

membrane which lines synovial joints and secretes synovial fluid

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41

synovial fluid

lubricant to make the smooth movement of the joint

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42

ligaments

bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another bone or by joining a bone to cartilage

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43

bursa

a fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas with friction, such as joints where a tendon passes over a bone

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44

axial skeleton

the 80 bones responsible for protecting the major organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems

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45

appendicular skeleton

the 126 bones that make body movement possible and also protects the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction

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46

appendage

anything that is attached to a major part of the bodyex

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47

extremity

the terminal end of a body part (ex. arm or leg)

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48

cranium

part of the skull that protects the brain

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49

mandible

jawbone

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50

thoracic cavity

rib cage

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51

sternum

breastbone, connects the ribs at the front of the chest

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52

manubrium

bony upper portion of the sternum

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53

xiphoid process

lower portion of the sternum, made of cartilage

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54

pectoral girdle

bones of the shoulder which support the arms and hands

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55

clavicle

collarbone

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56

scapula

shoulderblade

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57

acromion

extension of the scapula which forms the high point of the shoulder

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58

humerus

upper arm bone

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59

radius

smaller forearm bone, runs up the thumb side of the arm

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60

ulna

larger forearm bone, runs up the pinky side of the arm, forms elbow joint

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61

olecranon process

large projection on the upper end of the ulna, forms the point of the elbow (“funny bone”)

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62

carpals

wrist bones

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63

metacarpals

bones of the palm

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64

phalanges

finger/toe bones

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65

chiropractor

specialist in the manipulative treatment of disorders originating from misalignment of the spine

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66

orthopedic surgeon

physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles

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67

osteopath

doctor who uses traditional forms of medical treatment in addition to specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation

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68

podiatrist

specialist in disorders of the foot

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69

rheumatologist

specialist in conditions of inflammation in joints and connective tissues (ex. tendinitis, fibromyalgia)

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70

ankylosis

loss or absence of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury, or a surgical procedure

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71

arthrosclerosis

stiffness in the joints

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72

bursitis

inflammation of a bursa

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73

chondroma

slow-growing benign tumor derived from cartilage cells

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74

hallux valgus

bunion, abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe

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75

hemarthrosis

blood within a joint

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76

polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR)

a geriatric inflammatory disorder of the muscles and joints characterized by pain and stiffness

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77

Rheumatica

Latin word for arthritis and other disorders causing pain in the joints and supporting tissue

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78

sprain

torn or wrenched ligament

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79

dislocation

total displacement of a bone from its joint

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80

subluxation

partial displacement of a bone from its joint

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81

gouty arthritis (gout)

a type of arthritis characterized by deposits of uric acid (acid produced by kidneys) in the joints

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82

rheumatoid arthritis

chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked

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83

herniated disk

breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots (also called slipped or ruptured disk)

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84

lumbago

lower back pain

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85

spondylolisthesis

forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra or sacrum below it

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86

spina bifida

birth defect causing the spinal column to not fully envelope the spinal cord

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87

kyphosis

abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side (“humpback”)

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88

lordosis

abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine

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89

scoliosis

abnormal lateral curve to the spine

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90

rickets

defective bone growth, results from a vitamin D deficiency in children (infantile osteomalacia)

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91

talipes

congenital deformity of the foot involving the ankle bones (clubfoot)

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92

osteoporosis

loss of bone density and an increase in bone porosity that is frequently associated with aging

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93

osteopenia

thinner than-average bone density, used to describe the condition of someone who does not yet have osteoporosis, but is at risk for developing it

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94

Colles’ fracture

fracture occurs at the lower end of the radius when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on his or her hands (fractured wrist)

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95

closed fracture

bone broken, no opening to the surface (simple fracture/complete fracture)

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96

open fracture

bone is broken and there is an open wound in the skin (compound fracture)

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97

comminuted fracture

bone is splintered or crushed

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98

greenstick fracture

bone is bent and partially broken, most common in children (incomplete fracture)

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99

oblique fracture

fracture at an angle across the bone

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100

pathologic fracture

weakened bone breaks under normal strain

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