Plant Bio Ryan folk

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

botanist

1 / 234

Tags and Description

235 Terms

1

botanist

scientist who studies plants

New cards
2

physiology of plants

shows things like seasonal change, anatomy etc

New cards
3

Morphology

structure of plants in biology

New cards
4

earliest known fossils

stromatolite, a microbial mat. still exist in nutrient devoid estuaries

New cards
5

Autotroph

an organism that is able to form nutritional organic substances from simple inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide.

New cards
6

Heterotroph

organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer

New cards
7

photosynthesis created

the ozone layer, which allows terrestrial life. Also created oxygen, allowing respiration

New cards
8

algae

Grow in soil, on trees and on the bodies of turtles and frogs; smallest of all green plants. technically protists

New cards
9

meristem

Plant tissue that remains embryonic as long as the plant lives, allowing for indeterminate growth.

New cards
10

primary growth

Growth produced by apical meristems, which lengthen stems and roots.

New cards
11

secondary growth

Growth produced by lateral meristems, which thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants.

New cards
12

cuticle

A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.

New cards
13

stomata

Small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move. usually can open and close on their own. Helps prevent water loss

New cards
14

xylem

vascular tissue that carries water, minerals, support and food storage, upward from the roots to every part of a plant. dead at maturity.

New cards
15

phloem

the vascular tissue in plants that conducts sugars and other metabolic products downward from the leaves. carries nutrients, lipids, proteins, RNAs,and can be living or dead at maturity. Think:sap.

New cards
16

Biome

group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities

New cards
17

Ecosystem

A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment. Stable, self regulating.

New cards
18

Phytoremediation

A method employed to clean up a hazardous waste site that uses plants to absorb and accumulate toxic materials

New cards
19

genetic engineering of plants

Plant crops have been genetically engineered to be resistant to diseases or produce bigger and better fruits. used to improve traits not possible by regular breeding.

New cards
20

hunter-gatherers

People who hunt animals and gather wild plants, seeds, fruits, and nuts to survive

New cards
21

forest gardening

Producing food from trees, perennial and annual plants in a system that mimics a natural forest. Limbo between agriculture and hunter-gatherer.

New cards
22

Domestication

the process of changing plants or animals to make them more useful to humans

New cards
23

Agricultural Revolution

The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering. Slow transition rather than the original slow burst that was proposed.

New cards
24

centers of domestication

discrete areas of the world where a number of different plant and animal species were first domesticated, such as chili peppers in mesoamerica. Before colonization, there were no chiles in India!

New cards
25

Cultivars

a plant variety that has been produced in cultivation by selective breeding. PURPOSELY MADE BY HUMANS

New cards
26

landrace

a cultivar adapted to local conditions but not necessarily purposefully made by humans

New cards
27

nitrogen

limiting nutrient in agriculture.

New cards
28

industrialized cultivars

are favored in agriculture, which can take away genetic diversity related to disease resistance.

New cards
29

grains come from

the grass family

New cards
30

pseudograins

Grass seeds used in the same way as true cereal grains, often serving as a replacement (e.g., ground into flour or consumed as porridge) - examples include amaranth, buckwheat, and quinoa. In the amaranthe family

New cards
31

Temperate fruits

apples raspberries apricots, grows in a cool or cold climate.

New cards
32

Columbian Exchange

The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.

New cards
33

Green Revolution

Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.

New cards
34

Bioprospecting

the search for plant and animal species from which medicinal drugs and other commercially valuable compounds can be obtained.

New cards
35

Carbohydrates

the starches and sugars present in foods

New cards
36

lipids

Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

New cards
37

nucleic acids

macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus. RNA, DNA, free nucleotides form ATP

New cards
38

proteins

Nutrients the body uses to build and maintain its cells and tissues. strings of amino acids.

New cards
39

Hydrophilic

Attracted to water, dissolvable in water.

New cards
40

monomer

A simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers

New cards
41

Monosaccharides

Single sugar molecules, made of one monomer.

New cards
42

Disaccharide

A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.

New cards
43

Polysaccharides

Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides

New cards
44

starch is for

storage of glucose.

New cards
45

sucrose is for

transport within plants.

New cards
46

cellulose

A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms.

New cards
47

hydrophobic

Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water.

New cards
48

cutin

The main component of the waxy cuticle covering leaves to minimize water loss

New cards
49

suberin

Fatty material found in the cell walls of cork/bark tissue and in the Casparian strip of the endodermis

New cards
50

sterols

compounds containing a four-ring carbon structure with any of a variety of side chains attached.

New cards
51

Phytoestrogens

plant sources of estrogen

New cards
52

peptide bond

The chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid

New cards
53

primary structure

The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.

New cards
54

secondary structure

The second level of protein structure; the regular local patterns of coils or folds of a polypeptide chain.

New cards
55

tertiary structure

The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain.

New cards
56

quaternary structure

The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.

New cards
57

disulfide bridges

A strong covalent bond formed when the sulfur of one cysteine monomer bonds to the sulfur of another cysteine monomer.

New cards
58

Denaturation

loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factor

New cards
59

potassium channels

when potassium ions move through channels to create energy to move ions into the roots actively

New cards
60

Enzyme

A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing, or a catalyst

New cards
61

Nucleotide

monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

New cards
62

Deoxyribose

A five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides, missing one OH group compared to Ribose

New cards
63

Seconary metabolites

Complex compounds that are not directly involved in basic life processes

New cards
64

Why do plants have more secondary metabolites?

It helps them survive herbivores, pathogens, competition with other plants and signaling.

New cards
65

Alkaloids

organic bases found in plants that are often poisonous. Think Caffeine, morphine, Theobromine, etc.

New cards
66

Terpenoids

  • derived from terpenes via oxygenation or backbone rearrangement

  • have odorous characteristic volatile compounds; produce vapors at room temperature

New cards
67

phenolics

-Destroy vegetative bacteria, fungi, and some viruses -Able to act in the presence of organic matter -Too toxic to use as antiseptics

New cards
68

Flavonoids

phytochemicals found in fruits, vegetables, tea, nuts, and seeds,

New cards
69

Lignin

complex polymer that hardens cell walls of some vascular tissues in plants. Responsible for wood resistance in environments

New cards
70

Tannins

compounds in tea and coffee that bind iron. Responsible for bitter flavor

New cards
71

Copigmentation

Anthocyanins interact with themselves and other colorless cofactors to provide color beyond what would be expected from themselves.

New cards
72

Plant cell differences

cell wall, chloroplast, large vacuole

New cards
73

cytoplasmic streaming

The motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents.

New cards
74

nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts

In a plant cell, DNA may be found

New cards
75

Nucleolus

Found inside the nucleus and produces ribosomes

New cards
76

Polyploid

having three or more of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species

New cards
77

Thylakoid

A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.

New cards
78

Chloroplast

organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy. Also called plastids

New cards
79

stroma

The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.

New cards
80

grana

the stacks of thylakoids embedded in the stroma of a chloroplast.

New cards
81

Arabidopsis thaliana

Thale-Cress Plant (for plant molecular genetics studies)

New cards
82

circular genome

mitochondrial genome

New cards
83

chromoplasts

type of plastid that stores pigments that are responsible for the bright colors in fruit and flowers

New cards
84

Leucoplasts

Organelles that store starches or oils

New cards
85

Proplastids

Small, often colorless, membrane sacs that can divide and can mature into functional plastids.

New cards
86

cristae

Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.

New cards
87

mitochondria

An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. also has a role in programmed cell death

New cards
88

endosymbiotic theory

a theory that states that certain kinds of prokaryotes began living inside of larger cells and evolved into the organelles of modern-day eukaryotes

New cards
89

how many membranes around a chloroplast?

2

New cards
90

Photorespiration

A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen, releases carbon dioxide, generates no ATP, and decreases photosynthetic output; generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide.

New cards
91

Tonoplast

A membrane that encloses the central vacuole in a plant cell, separating the cytosol from the cell sap

New cards
92

Vacuole function

Store a variety of things such as water, nutrients, or waste products. Larger in plant cells

New cards
93

Golgi apparatus

A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell

New cards
94

Vescicles

Small membrane bubbles that move molecules around the cell

New cards
95

actin filaments

protein fibers that play a role in movement of cell and organelles

New cards
96

Microtubules

Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tubelike structure. made of tubulin

New cards
97

Plasmodesmata

An open channel in the cell wall of plants through which strands of cytosol connect from adjacent cells

New cards
98

mitosis

cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

New cards
99

G1 phase

The first gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins.

New cards
100

S phase

The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 7997 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(39)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 39 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard53 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard67 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard41 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard98 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard84 terms
studied byStudied by 41 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard109 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard50 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard262 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)