Inflammation/Lymphatics

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What is an allergy?

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1

What is an allergy?

Over-reaction of the immune system to a harmless antigen (allergens)

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2

How are hypersensitivity reactions grouped?

Grouped into four types according to the effector mechanism responsible for producing the reaction

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3

Type I

Binding of antigen to surface IgE, primarily on mast cells. Degranulation causes the release of inflammatory mediators

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4

Type II

Small molecules binding to cell surface components modify the antigenicity of the molecule rendering them immunogenic. B cell response to the antigen destroys the cell

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5

Type III

Soluble protein antigens bind to immunoglobulin forming immune complexes. These complexes deposit on small blood vessels triggering complement cascade and inflammation

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6

Type IV

Antigen-specific effector T cell

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7

Type 1 hypersensitivity - what is the antigen, what is the effector mechanism and reaction

Antigen = soluble antigen

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8

Effector mechanism = mast cell degranulation

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9

Reaction = Allergic rhinitis, asthma, systemic anaphylaxis

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10

FceRI

Expressed constitutively on mast cells/basophils induced on activated eosinophils binds IgE in the absence of antigen

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11

What are allergic reactions mediated by

H1 receptors on smooth muscle and endothelial cell

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12

What are histamines derived from

histidines

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13

What receptors do histamines bind to

H1, H2 and H3

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14

What is the purpose of a histamine?

Increase permeability/edema, smooth muscle contraction

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15

How is an invading parasite attacked and expelled from the host?

By breaking down the ECM proteins allowing invasion by leukocytes - enables the leukocytes to attack the parasite

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16

What type of hypersensitivity is Asthma/allergic Rhinitis

Type I

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17

What is Asthma/allergic rhinitis

Reaction to an inhaled allergen such as pollen, house dust mite, dander

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18

What are 20% of the allergies in North America against?

Cysteine protease of D. pteronissimus

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19

Wheal and flare

(a reaction) rash or hives (irregular, blanch raised areas with redness)

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20

-Local urticarial reaction (hives!)

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21

How does anaphylaxis present in felines?

Coughing, dyspnea (respiratory), vomiting and diarrhea (GI)

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22

-Common sources of allergens = house dust mites, fleas

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23

-Presentation = atopic dermatitis

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24

Common allergies in equine

Sweet itch = allergy to culicoides (midge bite)

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25

Heaves = respiratory manifestation of allergy to mold ex: aspergillum fumigates, alternaria tenuis

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26

Sweet Itch

Equine

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27

-Summer seasonal recurrent dermatitis - allergy to the saliva of biting insects such as culicoides (midge), sand flies and black flies

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28

How does sweet itch manifest

Intense itching (pruitis) local hair loss (alopecia) and a thickening and ridging of the skin in the affected area

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29

Heaves

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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30

-Respiratory manifestation of allergy to mold ex: aspergillum fumigates, alternaria tenuis

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31

Type II hyper sensitivity antigen

Altered cell surface component

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32

Type II hypersensitivity effector mechanisms

IgG binds to novel antigen which triggers the complement cascade

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33

-FcR targets leukocytes

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34

-IgG binds to cell surface receptor (autoimmunity)

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35

Type II hypersensitivity reaction

Hemolytic anemia, autoimmunity

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36

Haptenisation

The reaction of an antigenic compound (a hapten) with a carrier protein in order to stimulate an immune response.

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37

-Drug modification of a protein antigen

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38

-Penicillin derivatives - anemia

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39

Neonatal isoerythrolysis

Ex: Foal's red blood cells are destroyed by antibodies in the mare's colostrum

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40

Ex: Cats - kitten with blood group A or AB is born to a B mother

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41

-All type B cats have high titer anti -A IgM

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42

-Is rare in canines, spontaneously arising alloantibodies are infrequent

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43

Clinical signs of neonatal isoerythrolysis in cats

Hemolytic anemia, jaundice, hemoglobinuria, weakness, lethargy

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44

Hyperacute graft rejection

Immediate and rare

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45

Preexisting antibody to the antigens of the graft

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46

-Rhesus D reaction

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47

What do A erythrocytes express on gangliosides

N-Glycolyl neuraminic acid

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48

What do B erythrocytes express

N-acetyl neuraminic acid

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49

AB erythrocytes express both ______ and _______

N-glycolyl neuraminic acid and N-acetyl neuraminic acid

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50

Cats with B blood group lack the _____ enzyme that converts _____ to _______

Hydroxylase, acetyl to glycolyl

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51

How to treat neonatal isoerythrolysis in cats

Blood type and prevent exposure to colostrum - Type A foster queen or milk replacement

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52

Type III hypersensitivity antigen

Soluble antigen

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53

Type III Hypersensitivity effector mechanisms

Immune complexes, complement, phagocytes

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54

Type III hypersensitivity reaction

Arthus reaction (ex: to a tetanus vaccine), serum sickness (to drugs or antitoxins), Farmer's lung (hypersensitivity pneumonitis)

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55

Type III hypersensitivity high dose antigen

vasculitis, nephritis, arthritis

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56

Type III hypersensitivity Subcutaneous antigen

Arthus reaction

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57

Type III hypersensitivity inhaled antigen

Famer's lung

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58

What is an example of an infectious disease with an immune complex component and an example of one with autoimmune conditions?

Immune complex component = feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)

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59

Autoimmune = Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

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60

Type IV hypersensitivity antigen

Cell associated antigen

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61

Type IV hypersensitivity effector mechanism

macrophages, eosinophils, CTLs

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62

Type IV hypersensitivity reaction

chronic asthma, allergic rhinitis, contact dermatitis, tuberculin reaction

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63

Type IV hypersensitivity is synonymous with what kind of reaction? What does it consist of? Example?

Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), occurs 1-3 days after antigen exposure

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64

ex: tuberculin reaction = small amount of protein extract from m.tuberculuosis is infected subcutaneously - if immune M. tuberculosis proteins are processed, used to stimulate Th cells with then promote a local inflammatory response recruiting leukocytes at the site of injection

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65

(other examples : nickel allergy, poison ivy)

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66

Atopic dermatitis in canines and felines

Type I hypersensitivity reaction to allergens: dust mite (dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) , flour mite (dermatophagoides farinae) or saliva of flea (ctenocephalides felis)

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67

Treatment for atopic dermatitis

Identify allergen, prevent further exposure to allergen

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68

-Hyposensitization may be a good treatment for house dust mites

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69

Immunodeficiency results from

A defect at any stage of the immune response

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70

Are congenital immunodeficiencies rare?

Yes, many are X-linked and more common in males

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71

Complement deficiency - C3 example

Autosomal recessive - single base pair deletion in the C3 gene

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72

-Brittany spaniels had increased susceptibility to bacterial infection

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73

Inherited IgA deficiency

secreted immunoglobulin resistant to proteolytic degradation

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74

secretory component mediates transport across epithelial surfaces

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75

high affinity receptor on monocytes and neutrophils

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76

What condition in Irish setters is a deficiency of b-chain LFA-1 and what does it cause?

LAD (Leukocyte adhesion deficiency)

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77

-There is an absence of a functional LFA molecule - prevents adhesion of granulocytes to the endothelium - no migration!

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78

Secondary immunodeficiency following drug treatment

Corticosteriods - anti-inflammatory agent

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79

Increased production of IkBa - binds transcription factor NFkB preventing it from entering the nucleus and enhancing cytokine gene expression

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80

Cyclosporin A (secondary immunodeficiency following drug treatment)

Inhibits T cell activation by disrupting the transduction of signals from the T cell receptor

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81

Cancer (secondary immunodeficiency following drug treatment)

Affects rapidly dividing cells in the gut and bone marrow - causes immunosuppression

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82

-WBC count should be monitored

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83

immunodeficiency in response to viral infection - Lentiviruses (FIV, HIV,)

T helper cell depletion

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84

immunodeficiency in response to viral infection - FeLV

Thymic atrophy

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85

immunodeficiency in response to viral infection - distemper, parvo

Transient lymphocytolysis

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86

immunodeficiency in response to viral infection- parasite infection

Generalized immunosuppression

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87

Neonatal isoerythrolysis - foals

Foal's red blood cells are destroyed by antibodies in the mare's colostrum

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88

Inflammation

A complex, regulated yet non-specific response to physical/chemical injury or biological agent

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89

tumor, rubor, calor, dolor, functio laesa

The signs of inflammation in spanish; swelling, redness, heat, pain, loss of function

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90

What are some of the benefits of inflammation?

-Dilution/inactivation of pathogens and toxins

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91

-Killing pathogens/foreign materials/Necrotic tissue/neoplastic cells

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92

-Wound healing factors

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93

-Restrict movement for healing

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94

-Increase temp to induce vasodilation and inhibit replication of pathogens

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95

What are some of the disadvantages of inflammation

-Collateral damage

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96

-Excessive and/or prolonged inflammatory response can cause problems (IBD, Johne's disease, pemphigus, lupus, anaphylaxis, glomerulonephritis)

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97

-Anti inflammatory meds

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98

What suffix means inflammation?

-itis

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99

Inflammation of the skin

Dermatitis

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100

Inflammation of the kidney

Nephritis

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