Ch. 9 Lec: Articulations (Joints)

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-Structural (Anatomy)

-Functional (Range of motion)

-Structure determines function

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201 Terms

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-Structural (Anatomy)

-Functional (Range of motion)

-Structure determines function

Joint Classification

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-Fibrous

-Cartilaginous

-Bony

-Synovial

Structural classifications

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-Synarthrosis

-Amphiarthrosis

-Diarthrosis

Functional classifications

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Immovable joint

Synarthrosis

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Slightly movable joint

Amphiarthrosis

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Freely movable joint

Diarthrosis

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–Very strong

–Edges of bones may touch or interlock

–Can be fibrous or cartilaginous

-4 types (Synarthrotic)

Synarthrosis

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•Suture

•Gomphosis

•Synchondrosis

•Synostosis

Types of Synarthrotic Joints

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•Found only between bones of skull

•Edges of bones interlock

•Bound by dense fibrous connective tissue

Suture

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•Binds teeth to bony sockets

•Fibrous connection (periodontal ligament)

Gomphosis

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•Rigid cartilaginous bridge between two bones

•Found between vertebrosternal ribs and sternum

•Also, epiphyseal cartilage of growing long bones

Synchondrosis

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•Created when two bones fuse

•Example: metopic suture of frontal bone

•And epiphyseal lines of mature long bones

Synostosis

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–More movable than a synarthrosis

–Stronger than a diarthrosis

–Can be fibrous or cartilaginous

-2 types (Amphiarthroses)

Amphiarthrosis

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-Syndesmosis

-Symphysis

Types of Amphiarthroses

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Bones connected by a ligament

Syndesmosis

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Bones connected by fibrocartilage

Symphysis

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-Synovial joints (Diarthroses)

Diarthrosis

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–Freely movable joints

–At ends of long bones

Surrounded by joint capsule (articular capsule)

Diarthroses

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–Synovial fluid from synovial membrane

Articular cartilage covers articulating surfaces

Diarthroses

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Contains synovial membrane

Joint capsule (articular capsule)

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Fills joint cavity

Synovial fluid

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Prevents direct contact between bones

Articular cartilage

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-Synovial fluid

-5 accessory structures

-Mobile but relatively weak

Synovial joint

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–Has the consistency of egg yolk

–Contains proteoglycans

–3 primary functions

Synovial fluid

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•Lubrication

•Nutrient distribution

•Shock absorption

Primary functions: Synovial fluid

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–Cartilages

-Fat pads

–Ligaments

–Tendons

–Bursae

Accessory structures: Synovial joint

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Fibrocartilage pad between opposing bones

Meniscus

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Made of cartilage

Meniscus

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–Adipose tissue covered by synovial membrane

–Protect articular cartilages

Fat pads

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–Support and strengthen joints

-Sprain

Ligaments

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Ligament with torn collagen fibers

Sprain

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Attach to muscles around joint

Tendons

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–Small pockets of synovial fluid

–Cushion areas where tendons or ligaments rub against other tissues

Bursae

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•Collagen fibers of joint capsule and ligaments

•Shapes of articulating surfaces and menisci

•Other bones, muscles, or fat pads

•Tendons attached to articulating bones

Stabilize synovial joints

–Prevent injury by limiting the range of motion

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# of Synovial Joint Movements

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-Flexion

-Extension

-Hyperextension

Synovial Joint Movements

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-Abduction

-Adduction

-Circumduction

-Rotation

Synovial Joint Movements

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-Pronation

-Supination

-Inversion

-Eversion

Synovial Joint Movements

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-Dorsiflexion

-Plantar flexion

-Opposition

-Reposition

Synovial Joint Movements

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-Protraction

-Retraction

-Depression

-Elevation

Synovial Joint Movements

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Decreases angle between articulating bones

Flexion

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Increases angle between articulating bones

Extension

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Extension past anatomical position

Hyperextension

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Movement away from longitudinal axis

Abduction

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Movement toward longitudinal axis

Adduction

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Complete circular movement without rotation

Circumduction

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Movements made about the longitudinal axis and in the transverse plane

Rotation

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•Rotates forearm so that radius rolls across ulna

•Results in palm facing posteriorly

Pronation

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•Turns palm anteriorly

•Forearm is supinated in anatomical position

Supination

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Twists sole of foot medially

Inversion

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Twists sole of foot laterally

Eversion

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Flexion at ankle (lifting toes)

Dorsiflexion

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Extension at ankle (pointing toes)

Plantar flexion

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Movement of thumb toward palm or other fingers

Opposition

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Opposite of opposition

Reposition

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Anterior movement in horizontal plane (forward)

Protraction

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Opposite of protraction (pulling back)

Retraction

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Moving a structure inferiorly (down)

Depression

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Moving a structure superiorly (up)

Elevation

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-Plane (gliding)

-Hinge

-Condylar (ellipsoid)

Classification: Synovial Joints

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-Saddle

-Pivot

-Ball-and socket

Classification: Synovial Joints

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–First two cervical vertebrae are joined by a synovial joint

–Synovial joints lie between adjacent articular processes

–Adjacent vertebral bodies form symphyses

Intervertebral joints

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Separates vertebral bodies

Intervertebral disc

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Anulus fibrosus

Nucleus pulposus

Vertebral end plates of cartilage

Intervertebral disc: Components

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-Tough outer layer of fibrocartilage

-Attaches disc to vertebrae

Anulus fibrosus

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•Elastic, gelatinous core

•Absorbs shocks

Nucleus pulposus

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Cover superior and inferior surfaces of disc

Vertebral end plates of cartilage

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-Bulging disc

-Herniated disc

Intervertebral disc: Damage

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•Bulge in anulus fibrosus

•Invades vertebral canal

Bulging disc

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•Nucleus pulposus breaks through anulus fibrosus

•Compresses spinal nerves

Herniated disc

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-Flexion

-Extension

-Lateral flexion

-Rotation

Vertebral movements

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Elbow joint is what type of joint?

Hinge joint

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-Humerus

-Radius

-Ulna

Elbow joint: Articulations involved

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–Complex hinge joint

–Transfers weight from femur to tibia

–3 articulations

Knee joint

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-2 femur, tibia articulations (At medial and lateral condyles)

-1 between patella and patellar surface of femur

Knee joint: Articulations

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–Ball-and-socket diarthrosis

–Between head of humerus and glenoid cavity of scapula

–Greatest range of motion of any joint

Shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint)

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–Most frequently dislocated joint

–Supported by skeletal muscles, tendons, and ligaments

Shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint)

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–Between head of femur and acetabulum of hip bone

–Strong ball-and-socket diarthrosis

Hip joint

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–Wide range of motion

–Acetabular labrum

Hip joint

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•Rim of fibrocartilage

•Increases depth of joint cavity

•Seals in synovial fluid

Acetabular labrum

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Rheumatism

-Arthritis (joint inflammation)

-Osteoarthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis

Gouty arthritis

Joints: Degenerative changes

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Pain and stiffness in musculoskeletal system

Rheumatism

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All rheumatic diseases that affect synovial joints

Arthritis (joint inflammation)

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•Caused by wear and tear of joint surfaces, or genetic factors affecting collagen formation

•Generally affects people over age 60

Osteoarthritis

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•An inflammatory condition

•Immune system attacks joint tissues

Rheumatoid arthritis

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Crystals of uric acid form within synovial fluid

Gouty arthritis

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–Muscles attach to bones

–Bones are controlled by endocrine system

Other systems interact with skeletal system

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–Digestive and urinary systems provide calcium and phosphate minerals to bones for growth

–Skeleton serves as a reserve for calcium, phosphate, and other minerals

Other systems interact with skeletal system

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Suture

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Gomphosis

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Sychondrosis

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Synostosis

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Syndesmosis

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Symphysis

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Synovial joint

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Medullary cavity

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Articular cartilages

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Metaphysis

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Spongy bone

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Periosteum

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