NURS 212: Exam 2

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communication

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Tags and Description

107 Terms

1

communication

process of exchanging information and generating meanings

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2

source (encoder)

person/group that begins communication process

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3

message

actual communication product from the source

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4

channel

medium the source has selected to send the message

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5

receiver (decoder)

person who receives the message and interprets it

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6

auditory channel

spoken words and cues

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7

visual channel

sight, observations, and perception

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8

kinesthetic

touch

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9

noise

factors that distort the quality of the message (ex. tv, roommates, visitors, pain/discomfort)

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10

physical barriers

hearing, sight, and cognitive distractors

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11

interpersonal

self-talk, communication within a person (can be positive or negative)

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12

intrapersonal

talk between two or more people, goal is to exchange messages

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13

small group

nurses interact with two or more people (ex. staff meeting)

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14

organizational group

people within groups and organizations communicate to achieve established goals (ANA, etc.)

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15

group dynamics

how well group members work with each other towards a goal, determines effectiveness of a group

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16

task oriented roles

getting the work done

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17

group building/maintenance roles

focusing on the well being of the people doing the work

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18

self serving roles

advance the needs of individual members at the groups expense

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19

ground rules

identify goals, set direction, ensure group cohesiveness

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20

verbal communication

exchange of info using words, depends on the language

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21

spoken/written

reveals aspects of the patient's intellectual development, educational level, and geographic/cultural origin

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22

nonverbal communication

help nurses understand subtle and hidden meanings in what the person is feeling

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23

body language

communication via the movements or attitudes of the body

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24

touch

personal behavior, express affection, anger, etc

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25

eye contact

willingness to listen, anxiety, avoidance

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26

facial expressions

can read what the person is feeling by their face, some people can mask feelings

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27

posture

depressed/tired = slouch, positive/good health = sits upright, can give clues to pain

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28

gait

the way someone walks can indicate well being; bouncy, shuffling, slowly, limping

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29

gestures

thumbs up, kicking, tapping foot, waving hand

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30

general physical appearance

paleness, sunken eyes, dry skin, fullness of cheeks

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31

dressing and grooming

interest in physical appearance can vary depending on health (depression may equal lack of keeping up w/ appearance)

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32

sounds

crying, moaning, gasping, sighing

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33

silence

many meanings, understanding, anger, dying

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34

factors influencing communication

developmental level, biological sex, sociocultural responsibilities, space and territory, physical/emotional/mental state, values, environment

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35

helping relationship

relationship between caregiver/nurse and patient

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36

a helping relationship...

does not occur spontaneously, has unequal sharing of info, and is built on the client's needs

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37

characteristics of helping relationship

dynamic, purposeful, time limited, professional accountability

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38

orientation phase

identify each other by name, agreement is established, data gathered

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39

working phase

longest phase, meet patient's physical and psychosocial needs, nurse provides assistance, nurse is teacher and counselor

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40

termination phase

conclusion of agreement, patient is discharged or nurse leaves, evaluation of outcomes, patient verbalizes feelings about termination

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41

dispositional traits

characteristics/way of behaving that affects relationship: warmth and friendliness, openness and respect, empathy, honesty/authenticity and trust, caring, competence

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42

rapport

feeling of mutual trust in a relationship that facilitates open communication

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43

rapport builders

specific objectiveness (having a purpose for interaction), comfortable environment, privacy, confidentiality, patient vs. task focus (focus on patient and their needs), using nursing observations (ex. nonverbal messages), optimal pacing, respecting personal space

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44

different cultures

release personal bias, learn about client's cultures/beliefs, adjust your care to meet their needs, use interpreters when necessary

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45

therapeutic communication

focusing on the patient's needs

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46

non-therapeutic communication

not making the patient feel comfortable

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47

conversation skills

tone of voice, knowledgeable, flexible, concise, avoid slang, truthful, open-minded, facilitate conversation at optimal times

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48

listening skills

sit and be conscious about body language, be alert and relaxed, keep conversation natural, maintain eye contact, think before responding, listen and identify themes

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49

silence technique

allows patients to gather their thoughts and proceed at their own pace

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50

touch technique

express comfort and affection

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51

humor technique

accept failures, lighten situation, maintain balanced perspective in work

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52

openended questions

allows for wide range of response

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53

close ended questions

limited to yes/no/short answers, gather specific info

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54

validating question

validate what nurse believes they've heard/observed (do not overuse)

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55

clarifying question

gain understanding of patient's comment

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56

reflective question

repeating what the patient said or describing patient's feeling

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57

sequencing question

place events in chronological order or investigate a possible cause and effect relationship in events

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58

direct question

obtain more info about a topic brought up earlier or introduce new aspect

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59

assertive behaviors

empathy, describing feelings and situations, clarifying expectations, anticipating consequences

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60

communication blockers

changing subject, false assurance, gossip/rumors, disruptive interpersonal behavior and communication, failure to perceive the patient as a human being, failure to listen, non therapeutic comments and questions

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61

visually impaired communication

acknowledge presence, identify yourself

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62

hearing impaired communication

face patient, keep mouth clear, use gestures

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63

physical barrier communication

eye blink, hand squeezes

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64

cognitively impaired communication

maintain eye contact for attention, talk simple and concrete

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65

unconscious

assume patient can hear you

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66

non-english speaking

speak in simple sentences, find interpreter, universal nonverbal cues

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67

maintain/promote health (aims)

helps patients value health and develop specific health practices (ex. passive exercise, making safe exercise program)

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68

preventing illness (aims)

teach patients how to prevent illness (ex. screening)

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69

restoring health (aims)

counseling someone who is already ill, practice self-care, improve health (ex. teach someone w/ STI to use condoms)

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70

facilitating coping (aims)

help come to terms w/ changes and cope

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71

promoting outcomes

high-level wellness, self-care practices, recovery from trauma, enhanced ability to adjust to developmental lifestyle

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72

T

tune into patient

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73

E

edit patient info

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74

A

act on every teaching moment

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75

C

clarify often

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76

H

honor the patient as a partner in the education process

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77

ADPIE

Assess, Diagnose, Plan, Implement, Evaluate

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78

factors affecting patient learning

age (emotional maturity and moral/spiritual dev.), developmental level (degree of understanding), adult learners, family support and financial resources, cultural influence, language deficits, health literacy

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79

pedagogy

child learning

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80

andragogy

adult learning

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81

cognitive learning

storing/recalling new knowledge int he brain, comprehension

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82

psychomotor learning

learning a physical skill

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83

affective learning

changes in attitudes, values, and feelings

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84

effective communication techniques

sincerity, honesty, stick to the basics (avoid giving too much detail), simple words, clear and concise, vary tone of voice, listen (do not interrupt the patient), environment is free of interruptions

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85

assessing

patients are considered primary sources of info, review medical records, assess learning readiness, motivation, compliance, and patient strenghts

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86

diagnosing

nursing diagnosis is not a medical diagnosis (ex. ineffective breathing, risk for infection, risk for falls, pain)

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87

outcome identification and planning

goals of patient, time line, teaching strategy/learner activity, goal met or not met, teacher content

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88

role modeling

actions speak louder than words

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89

lecture

present info, but be interactive and collaborate with patient

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90

discussion

exchange info, ideas, feelings

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91

panel discussion

presentation of info by two or more people, debate, share experiences and emotions

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92

demonstration and return demonstration

evaluate patient learning by having them teach back what they've learned

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93

discovery

offer info (like a pamphlet) to patient and let them conduct their own research

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94

role playing

give learner a chance to experience, relive, or anticipate event

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95

contractual agreements

pact between two people setting out mutually agreed on goals

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96

time constraints

set priorities for essential content

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97

scheduling

plan shorter, more frequent teaching sessions

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98

group vs. individual

depends on skill being taught (ex. getting dressed would be individual, while expressing feelings may be done in a group)

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99

formal vs. informal

informal (unplanned) deals w/ immediate concerns while formal is planned sessions for anticipated outcomes

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100

implementing

prepare and organize teaching aids, make it fun and creative, have a positive attitude, review patient expectations and role functions as learner to avoid misunderstandings, consider environment, assess comfort level

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